Research Interest :
In mammals, intracellular molecules or endogenous molecules known as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are released by dying cells caused by pathogens or trauma, and convey similar message stimulation. The innate immune system is initiated via the recognition and binding of foreign particles of microbial polysaccharides like β-1,3-glucan, lipopolysaccharide, and peptidoglycan, as well as seaweed polysaccharides like alginate, carrageenan, fucoidan, laminarin, and seaweed extract. These polysaccharides are termed pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and are commonly used as immunostimulants to increase the immune response. Invertebrate like shrimp receiving PAMPs exhibits hemocyte degranulation, changes in cell viability and necrosis, and releases endogenous molecules containing DAMPs. The innate immunity is elicited and enhanced by a mixture of endogenous molecules and exogenous substances or immunostimulants. Examinations of DAMPs, immune paramters, immune-related genes of animals receiving exogenous molecules, or immunostimulants, resistance against pathogen, downstream activation of innate immunity, and synergizing immune response are on the way. .