Research Article
THE INFLUENCE OF SELECTED DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS ON ORGANISATIONAL COMMITMENT AMONGST CIVIL WORKERS IN GAUTENG PROVINCE SOUTH AFRICA
Albert Tchey Agbenyegah and Joseph Mbulaheni Ndou*
Corresponding Author: Joseph Mbulaheni Ndou PhD, Durban University of Technology, South Africa.
Received: 22 March 2024; Revised: 05 April 2024; Accepted: 08 April 2024 Available Online: 24 April 2024
Share :
  • 2035

    Views & Citations
  • 1035

    Likes & Shares
ORIENTATION

Given their poor service quality and corruption, municipalities must reevaluate their staff members' commitment to expediting service delivery.

RESEARCH PURPOSE

The aim of this empirical research is to determine the link between demographic characteristics and employees' organizational commitment in municipalities.

MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY

There needs to be more research done on organizational commitment and demographic factors, including age, educational attainment, and job experience in South African municipalities. Cities and other successful public organizations rely on various individual and connected factors. Employees should be dedicated to improving performance and achieving established goals in every firm. To be viewed as an asset to their organization. Similarly, in municipalities under the administration of Gauteng Province, the dedication of staff fosters efficiency and effectiveness and enhances service delivery.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY/DESIGN

A quantitative research design was employed to find the study's objectives. Adapted study instruments were sent to Gauteng municipality workers (N = 400) to establish dependability.

MAIN FINDINGS

The findings indicated a strong correlation between organizational commitment and the ages of employees. Age groupings provide varying degrees of organizational involvement. Further evidence showed a sizeable connection between educational attainment and organizational commitment. Other academically qualified employees showed varying degrees of dedication to the company. The research found no association between job experience and organizational commitment. This suggests that a worker's job history and organizational commitment are unrelated.

PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS

The overarching conclusion of this result is that it is necessary to consider every factor as a motivator for employee organizational commitment. Additionally, the research suggests that an organization’s commitment should cogitate an employee's age, educational background, and professional experience. Therefore, employers must provide agreeable working environments that encourage commitment and learning among their workforce. Instead of removing negative organizational perceptions of innovation and opportunity identification that leads to productivity. The aim of learning tools should be used to comprehend organizational commitment.

CONTRIBUTION VALUE-ADD

This research is original and provides evidence for the use of selected constructs.

 

INTRODUCTION

It is very enlightening to quantify demographic factors like age, gender, ethnicity, size, educational attainment, and job experience in statistical terms for a specific group (Blythe & Martin, 2019; Kotler & Armstrong, 2001). Scientific studies have previously shown relationships between gender, age, educational background, and experience of workers (Karrasch, 2003; Klag & Bradley, 2004). Age, education, and marital status are examples of demographic factors related to organizational commitment. Access to superior educational systems results in well-developed workers who are more satisfied with their jobs (Akintayo, 2010). The quantity of topic specialists across academic subjects is a key indicator of the development of certain academic institutions in any nation. However, according to Bashir, Jiangiao, Zhang & Ghazanfar (2011), these incidences correlate substantially with workers' dedication. According to Rehman, Mahmood, & Ishaque, (2012) educational institutions are renowned for fostering individual responsibility, development and the creation of a rich nation. Organizations want to strengthen their employee engagement by having them adhere to the standards of the company (Hakan, Tokmak, & Gucel, 2011). Affum-Osei, Acquaah, and Acheampong, (2015) claim that any organization’s organizational commitment depends heavily on the actions of its employees. In the last twenty-five years, a substantial study has been done on organizational commitment in commercial and public sector firms (Igbal, Kokash, & Al-Qun, 2011). However, Bakotic, (2021) contends that since the 1950s, scientists and practitioners have paid major attention to organizational commitment.

Furthermore, this interest is seen in various research studies examining organizational commitment's characteristics, causes, and effects. Additionally, Bakotic, (2021) emphasized that this attention is supported by two primary factors. We still don't completely understand the importance of organizational commitment and how it affects workers. Additionally, it has not been made clear how corporate commitment is influenced by demographic, cultural, and organizational factors. In addition, an emotional connection between employees in a company and their engagement, fidelity, motivation, beliefs, and organizational standards also exist (Qaiser, Rehman, & Suffma, 2012). In addition to withdrawal cognition, commitment is linked to work-related outcomes, including higher-quality service delivery, employee performance, organizational effectiveness, and lower turnover (Adegbaye, Agboola, & Buraimo, 2021). Idris & Usman's, (2018) argument that dedicated employees are considered essential assets of any organization is supported by the fact that productivity and level of service show the impact of their efforts in such a business. Divergent perspectives have also been expressed in relation to demographic and organizational commitment. For this topic, a more empirical investigation is required to provide different results.

The primary goal of this empirical study was to ascertain the relationships between the demographic variables (employee age, educational attainment, and work experience). The study's final findings will enrich the body of management literature and advance scientific understanding to help policymakers in Gauteng Province create and implement policy frameworks that will increase employee retention and performance and raise individual levels of commitment.

The definitions of organizational commitment are endless. For instance, the idea was described as one that relies on orientation by Ajayi, (2017). Employee-based organizational commitment has been identified as a crucial consequence in the workplace. Results include better attendance, reduced absenteeism, enhanced employee performance, and voluntary loyalty to the business from employees. Fornes, Rocco, & Wollard, (2008); Larber, Savis, Zeineldin, & Rahmah, (2014) describe it as a worker’s devotion to the company and a strong belief in principles and aims. According to Hosseini & Talebiannia, (2015) organizational commitment sturdily sways how social actors distribute power to strengthen the social fabric. It is defined by Meyer, Kam, Goldenberg, & Bremner, (2013) as the degree to which workers feel a sense of belonging to organizations with the conviction that such organizations are connected to employees' livelihoods. According to the authors of this empirical research Ozbag & Arslan, (2018), organizational commitment is the attitude of individual workers who are psychologically bound and committed to growing a company.

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

The age, educational background, and amount of work experience of the workers are the three key demographic factors that are the focus of this portion of the research. There is also a discussion of the idea of organizational commitment. Based on the body of research already in existence, the two variables demographic and organizational were explored to ascertain their correlations.

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

For many years, researchers have shown a connection between organizational commitment and demographic factors, including age, education, gender, marital status, and job history. Previous empirical investigations have shown a considerable correlation between business commitments and demographic factors. A visual representation of the important variables used during the investigation. The dependent variable is organizational commitment, whereas the independent variables are employee age, educational background, and job experience. The dependent and independent variables were described in the framework. Three propositions and tests of hypotheses were made based on the conceptual frame.

RESEARCH PROPOSITION

Age, educational attainment, and employment history are some of the demographic traits that serve as the foundation of this empirical investigation. Figure 1, on the next page, demonstrates how demographic traits affect organizational commitment. According to this study's definition of organizational commitment, people who consistently exhibit this attitude inside an organization demonstrate a strong bond between the company and its employees (Konya, Matic, & Pavlovic, 2016). Examining the connections between the chosen variable’s employee age, educational attainment, professional experience, and organizational commitment would be useful. As a result, three hypotheses were developed to assist the mentioned goals.

The project aims to provide answers to the following research questions:

  • What is the relationship between age and organizational commitment?
  • What is the relationship between the level of qualification and organizational commitment?
  • What is the relationship between work experience and organizational commitment?

First Hypothesis

  • H1: There is a correlation between age and employee commitment
  • H01: There is no correlation between age and employee commitment

Second Hypothesis

  • H2: There is a correlation between the level of qualification and the organizational commitment
  • H02: There is no correlation between the level of education and organizational commitment

Third Hypothesis

  • H3: There is a correlation between work experience and organizational commitment
  • H03: There is no relationship between work experience and organizational commitment

The research article is organized in the following way.  Firstly, a review of the literature is provided on the topics examined in this research and their anticipated interactions. Secondly, a description of the study's research design is provided. Finally, the study's findings are given. The study's advice is then expended in practice and future research.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Linking age and organizational commitment

According to Bakotic, (2022) the theoretical investigation has produced contentious results concerning the association between age and organizational commitment. Numerous studies have shown a strong correlation between age and organizational commitment, according to Affum-Osei, Acquaah & Acheampong, (2015); Amangala, (2013); Elkhdr & Kanbur, (2018); Nifadkar & Dongre, (2014) and Sheikh, (2017). These results might be explained by the fact that older employees have better positions and are more satisfied with their jobs (Khan & Zafar, 2013), they have fewer employment alternatives (Mowday, Porter & Steers, 1982), and they are aware of the high costs associated with leaving the organization. Furthermore, according to Newstrom, (2007) mature people lower their expectations to more acceptable levels and adapt to their work situations more effectively. On the other hand, other exploratory studies, according to Akinyemi, (2014) and Booth-Kewley, Dell'Acqua, & Thomsen, (2017) have not yet shown a strong connection between age and organizational commitment.

Linking work experience and organizational commitment

According to Bakotic, (2022) time is a reliable indicator of organizational commitment. The longer an individual works for a firm, the more likely they will get attached to it and feel loyal to it; they may also rise in their positions and receive better pay and other benefits. All this encourages a sense of belonging. Additionally, Meyer & Allen, (1997) contend that employees with low organizational commitment quitting their jobs may explain the positive relationship between length and organizational commitment. Conversely, workers with a strong organizational commitment tend to stay with the company. This is primarily supported by the exploration's findings, which show a strong correlation between length and organizational commitment (Amangala, 2013; Nifadkar & Dongre, 2014; Sheikh, 2017). However, certain research evaluations (e.g., those by Avci & Erdem (2017), Booth-Kewley, Dell'Acqua & Thomsen, (2017) and Mahanta, (2012) show no correlation between longevity and organizational commitment. At the same time, Liou & Nyhan, (1994) and Boon & Safa, (2006) demonstrated a significant inverse relationship between longevity and organizational commitment.

Linking educational qualification and organizational commitment

According to Bakotic, (2022) elucidating the relationship between education and organizational commitment is essential in the current context, which is characterized by ongoing learning. According to Amangala, (2013) multiple research evaluations have shown a favourable correlation between education and organizational commitment. This indicates how a better-educated workforce suggests a higher degree of organizational dedication. However, the overwhelming body of research suggests a negative relationship between education and organizational commitment, showing that higher worker educational credentials are associated with weaker organizational commitment (Mathieu & Zajac, 1990; Newstrom, 2007). However, Kwon & Banks, (2004) clarified this by demonstrating the superior career prospects for the workforce with a greater level of education. Additionally, Joiner & Bakalis, (2006) hinted that highly intelligent societies can have expectations from their organizations that are more substantial and may be more inclined to meet them.

RESEARCH DESIGN

The present study used structured questionnaires to gather quantitative data in quantitative research designs. Additionally, exploratory and descriptive research methods were used to examine the study's hypotheses. According to Manyathi, (2019) the researcher used a cross-sectional research approach to amass data through unique but connected variables matched to find any links between the existing variables. Furthermore, according to Manyathi, (2019) a cross-sectional approach was required to demonstrate the relationship between demographics and employee commitment.

RESPONDENTS

A sample is thought of as a representative of the complete relevant population, according to Saunders, Lewis & Thornhill, (2003). While it is unattainable to survey the relevant population once, a sample is often used in social sciences exploratory projects, as in this research, which sampled 400 workers.

MEASURING INSTRUMENTS

For this investigation, the following measurement tools were used: Meyer & Allen's (1998) Organizational Commitment Questionnaire served as the study's measuring tool.

RESEARCH PROCEDURE

The relevant municipality granted permission for the exploration to proceed. Numerous meetings were held with the key investigator to explain the goal and methodology of the study.

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

The statistical analyses consist of hypothesis testing using the analysis of variances, presented in the table outlining the degree of freedom, the mean squares, and the exact significance level.

HYPOTHESES TESTING AND RESULTS INTERPRETATION

The study has examined the hypotheses for this article, which relate certain respondents' demographics to their commitment. The ANOVA tables show the outcomes, mean differences, and probability (Table 1).

The key construct of commitment had a one-way analysis of variance result of F (2,170) =5.56, with a probability of P = 0.005, when the relationship between employee commitment and employee age was examined. The null hypothesis is rejected since it can be deduced that the means are substantially different (5.56), and P = 0.005 < 0.05. The output's exact significance level (.005) is lower than alpha (.05), hence the findings are statistically significant. Since people of various ages commit in different ways, making the commitment age-specific is based on the theory that an employee's age and the degree of organizational commitment he or she displays are related (Table 2).

Employee commitment's main construct, F (3,214), =3.40, with a probability of P = 0.019, was determined by analyzing the one-way analysis of variance between employee commitment and educational level. The null hypothesis is disproved since it can be deduced that the means are substantially different (3.40) and that P = 0.019< 0.05. The output's exact significance level (.019) is lower than alpha (.05). Hence the findings are statistically significant. Because people with various levels of education commit in different ways, the commitment is level-specific. There is a theory that suggests there is a connection between a worker's academic accomplishments and organizational commitment (Table 3).

Because the findings failed to reject the null hypothesis about the relationship between employee commitment and employee age, the main construct’s probability outcomes and sub-constructs are less than 0.05. This is explained by the F (3, 216) findings of 2.38, 0.14, 0.33, and Ps = 0.071, 0.071, 0.936, and 0.808 being less than 0.05. Therefore, it has been concluded that employee commitment must be tailored to their age. The output's exact significance level (.249) is higher than the alpha (.05). Hence the findings are not statistically significant.

ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS

Ethical approval to explore the study was attained from the Durban University of Technology.

LIMITATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

It is important to discuss some of this empirical study's shortcomings. First, the fact that just three variables were chosen for data collection and that employee data was gathered from particular locations limits the scope of this research. By including other employee characteristics like gender and position, the findings might be more broadly generalized and meaningful. Finally, a mixed-methods design would have produced another interesting result since a qualitative design reveals the participants' true perspectives.

CONCLUSION

The research looked at the connection between organizational commitment and worker demographics. Three demographic factors were compared to the sub-constructs of employee commitment. Out of the three examined hypotheses, the findings rejected the null hypothesis that age and education level affect commitment. On the other hand, the major and sub-constructs of the work experience associated with employee commitment did not successfully reject the null hypothesis. Additionally, the age connection with organizational commitment rejects all of the null hypotheses. Two of the sub-constructs could not disprove the educational level's null hypothesis. The continuation and normative commitment failed because the mean differences were negligible, and the P-values were less than 0.05. In conclusion, age and educational attainment correlate with certain demographic factors and employee commitment. Additionally, employee dedication was distinct from job experience. Overall, the Gauteng municipal authorities should implement changes to foster a strong organizational culture in which all young or old workers assume full responsibility for every municipality-related activity. Authorities must change the present working circumstances to aid and enhance employee performance in cities and towns. Additionally, this empirical study's findings will help policymakers "craft" retention and employment-related policies.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The researchers acknowledge all research participants.

DISCLAIMERS

The opinions and thoughts articulated in this article are those of the researchers and do not essentially echo the official view of any affiliated agency of the authors.

  1. Adegbaye, S.I., Agboola, I. O & Buraimo, O. (2021). Organizational commitment among University library personnel A demographic analysis. Library philosophy and practice (e-journal). 5397.
  2. Affum-Osei, E., Acquaah, E. & Acheampong, P. (2015) Relationship between organizational commitment and demographics variables: Evidence from a commercial bank in Ghana. American Journal of Industrial and Business Management, 5: 769-778.
  3. Agrawal, S & Jain B. K. (2020). Influence of demographic variables on organizational commitment of school teachers: Evidence from the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Quest Journal of Management and Social Sciences, 2, 262-274.
  4. Ajayi, M.O. (2017). Influence of Gender and Age on Organizational Commitment Among Civil Servants in South-West Nigeria. Canadian Social Science, 13, 29-35.
  5. Akintayo, D. I. (2010). Work-family role conflict and organizational commitment among industrial workers in Nigeria. JPC, 2, 1-8.
  6. Al-Haroon, H.I. & Al-Qahtani, M.F. (2020). Assessment of organizational commitment among nurses in a major public hospital in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare, 13, 519-526.
  7. Amangala, T.A. (2013). The effect of demographic characteristics on organizational commitment a study of salespersons in the soft drink industry in Nigeria. European Journal of Business and Management, 18, 109-119.
  8.  Bakotic╠ü, D. (2021). How do demographic characteristics relate to organizational commitment? Evidence from Croatia, Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraz╠îivanja.
  9. Blythe, J. & Martin, J. (2019). Essentials of Marketing. Pearson UK.
  10. Eskildsen, J. K., Kristensen, K. & Westlund, A. H., (2004). Work motivation and job satisfaction in the Nordic countries. Employee Relations, 26, 122-136.
  11. Fornes, S. L., Rocco, T. S., & Wollard, K. K. (2008). Workplace commitment A conceptual model developed from an integrative review of the research. Human Resource Development Review, 7, 339-357.
  12. Hakan T, Tokmak, I. Gucel, C. (2011). The effect of employees’ organizational justice perceptions on their organizational commitment: A university sample. IJBMS, 4, 1309-8047, (2012).
  13. Hakan, K & Kurtbas, D. The Relationship between Mobbing the Academics are exposed to and the Organizational Commitment: A Study in the public and private universities. IJARAFMS, 1, 16-32.
  14. Igbal, A., Kokash, H.A and Al-Qun, S. (2011) The impact assessment of demographic factors on faculty commitment in the kingdom of Saudi Arabian universities. Journal of College Teaching and Learning, 8, 1-13.
  15. Karrasch, A.I. (2003). Antecedents and consequences of organizational commitment. Military Psychology, 15, 225-236.
  16. Khan, I.J., Khan, F., Khan, H., Nawaz, A & Yar, N.B. (2013). Determining the demographic impacts of the organisational commitment of academicians in the HEI s of DC like Pakistan., 2, 117-130.
  17. Khurshid, F., Parveen, N. (2015). Organizational commitment in relation to biographic variations among college teachers. Journal of Research in Social Sciences-JRSS, 3, 96-106.
  18. Konya, V., Matic, D.  Pavlovic, J. (2016) The Influence of Demographics, Job Characteristics and Characteristics of Organizations on Employee Commitment. Acta Polytechnica Hungarica, 14: 119-138.
  19. Larber, M. & Savis, S.B. (2014) Factors affecting nurses’ organizational commitment of the nursing personnel in a Greek national health system hospital. International Journal of Caring Sciences, 7, 252-257.
  20. Mowday, R. T., Porter, L. W., & Steers, R. M. (1982). Employee organization linkages. The psychology of commitment absenteeism and turnover. Academic Press.
  21. Sheikh, L. (2017). Antecedents and consequences of organizational commitment of teachers: Case of University of the Punjab. Pakistan Economic & Social Review, 55, 391-414.
  22. Elkhdr, H. R., & Kanbur, A. (2018). Organizational commitment in relation to demographic characteristics among lecturers working at Libyan universities. International Journal of Humanities & Social Science Invention, 7, 46-52.
  23. Akinyemi, B. O. (2014). Organizational commitment in Nigerian banks: The influence of age, tenure and education. Journal of Management & Sustainability, 4(4), 104-115.
  24. Booth-Kewley, S., Dell’Acqua, R. G., & Thomsen, D. J. (2017). Factors affecting organizational commitment in Navy Corpsmen Military Medicine, 182, 1794-1800.
  25. Liou, K., & Nyhan, R. (1994). Dimensions of organizational commitment in the public sector: An empirical assessment. Public Administration Quarterly, 18, 99-118.
  26. Kwon, I.-W. G., & Banks, D. W. (2004). Factors related to the organizational and professional commitment of internal auditors. Managerial Auditing Journal, 19, 06-622.
  27. Mathieu, J. E., & Zajac, D. M. (1990). A Review and meta-analysis of the antecedents correlates and consequences of organizational commitment. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 171-194.
  28. Mowday, R. T., Porter, L. W., & Steers, R. M. (1982). Employee organization linkages. The psychology of commitment absenteeism and turnover. Academic Press.
  29. Milinga,M.(2020).The effects of age as a demographic factor on employees’ commitment to the organization at Muhumbili National Hospital-mlongazila: A case of nursing cadre. Masters dissertation. Mzumbe University. Available at: http.//scholar.mzumbe.ac.tz
  30. Nawaz, A. & Kundi, G. M (2010). Demographic implications for the eLearning user perceptions in HEIs of NWFP Pakistan. EJISDC, 41, 117.
  31. Nifadkar, R. S., & Dongre, A. P. (2014). To study the impact of job satisfaction and demographic factors on organizational commitment among girls’ college, Pune, India. Journal of Business Management & Social Sciences Research, 3, 1-8.
  32. Ojayi, M.O. (2017). Influence of gender and age on organizational commitment amongst civil servants in South-West Nigeria. Canadian Social Science, 13, 29-35.
  33. Ozbag.G. K & Arslan, O. (2018). The effect of demographics characteristics on organizational commitment: An investigation on Turkish port staff. International Journal of Tourism, Economic and Business Sciences, 2, 549-560
  34. Qaisar, M, U. Rehman, M, S. Suffyan, M. (2012). Exploring Effects of Organizational Commitment on Employee Performance: Implications for Human Resource Strategy. IJCRB, 3, 248-255.
  35. Rabindarang S., Bing K.W. & Yin, K.Y. (2014). The Impact of Demographic Factors on Organizational Commitment in Technical and Vocational Education. Malaysian Journal of Research, 2, 56-61.
  36. Rehman, S, U. Shareef, A., Mahmood, A., Ishaque, A. (2012). Perceived leadership styles and organizational commitment. IJCRB, 4, 616-626.
  37. Rousseau, D. M., & Parks, J. M. (1993). The contracts of individuals and organizations. LL Cummings, 8.
  38. Sabir, F. S., Maqsood, Z., Tariq, W., & Devkota, N. (2019). Does happiness at work lead to organizational citizenship behavior with a mediating role of organizational learning capacity? A gender perspective study of educational institutes in Sialkot, Pakistan. International Journal of Work Organization and Emotion, 10, 281-296.
  39. Salami, S.O. (2008). Demographic and psychological factors predicting organizational commitment among industrial workers. Anthropologist, 10, 31-38.
  40. Tikare, M. (2015). An Evaluation of Organizational Commitment of Indian Nursing Staff of Trust Private Hospitals with Reference to Education. Abhinav International Monthly Refereed Journal of Research in Management & Technology, 4, 6.