Abstract
Investigating the Gut Dysbiosis during Uropathogenic Escherichia coli- Induced Urinary Tract Infection and Microbiome Diversity during Treatment with Manihot esculenta
Sedzani Matenzhe*, Nontobeko Mvubu and Ziphozethu Ndlazi
Corresponding Author: Sedzani Matenzhe, Master of medical Sciences, School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences. College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
Revised: November 28, 2023; Available Online: November 28, 2023
Citation: Matenzhe S, Mvubu N & Ndlazi Z. (2023) Investigating the Gut Dysbiosis during Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Induced Urinary Tract Infection and Microbiome Diversity during Treatment with Manihot esculenta. J Infect Dis Res, 6(S4): 22.
Copyrights: ©2023 Matenzhe S, Mvubu N & Ndlazi Z. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) Urinary Tract Infection (UTI), is a common and often painful bacterial infection of the urinary system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect UPEC-induced UTI on the gut dysbiosis and microbiome diversity during treatment with the medicinal plant, Manihot esculenta for it known antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. For this study, a group of 32 Sprague Dawley female rats were acquired from the University of KwaZulu-Natal Westville campus Biomedical Research Unit. They were divided into groups of 6 rats. Five of the groups were infected with UPEC and then treated with Saline, Ciprofloxacin, M. esculenta, and a combination of Ciprofloxacin and M. esculenta respectively, the 6th group is the control group with no infection. The rats euthanized and the fecal matter in the large intestine was collected. Total DNA extraction was performed on the fecal matter using ZymoBIOMICS DNA Miniprep Kit and the samples were sent off for metagenomics sequencing. Sequencing adapters were removed from raw sequencing reads using Trimmomatic while microbiome diversity was interrogated using the Kbase platform. The Metagenomics analysis revealed elevated levels of Clostridiales, and a decrease in Bacteriodales and lachnospiraceae in the UPEC-infected groups compared to uninfected group. Some Clostridiales strains are thought to modulate the host's immune response and maintain immune homeostasis in the gut. Gut dysbiosis may lead to an altered immune response, contributing to inflammation and disease. However, the antagonistic action of Lachnospiraceae inhibit intestinal inflammation to maintain the intestinal barrier and modulate gut motility. Bacteriodales are amongst the most common anaerobes in the human colon, as they provide the body with energy by converting carbohydrates into fatty acids. Low levels of Bacteriodales can be associated with gastrointestinal disorders such as inflammatory bowel syndrome that could be a result of elevated levels of Clostridailes. The consumption of Ciprofloxacin restores the Bacteriodales relative abundancy to near normal levels, however the Clostridiales still remain relatively high compared to uninfected group. The consumption of M. esculenta reduces Clostridiales levels to relatively low levels and increase Bacteriodales compared to the Ciprofloxacin treated group. Thus, the current study reveals that consumption of M. esculenta restores normal gut microbiota compared to the Ciprofloxacin and Saline treatments.

Keywords: Uropathogenic Escherichia coli, Manihot esculenta, Urinary tract infection, Bacteriodales, Clostridailes