Research Article
NON-IMPLEMENTATION OF SPORT POLICY AS A FACTOR IN POOR DEVELOPMENT OF ATHLETIC PROPENSITIES AMONG YOUNGSTERS IN SUB-SAHARA AFRICA
OYEBODE Tunde Samson*
Corresponding Author: OYEBODE Tunde Samson, Sport Center Joseph Ayo Babalola University, Ikeji Arakeji Ilesa, Osun State, Nigeria.
Received: 29 December, 2022; Revised: 07 January, 2023; Accepted: 10 January, 2023 Available Online: 31 January, 2023
Share :
  • 2541

    Views & Citations
  • 1541

    Likes & Shares
Using Nigeria as a case study, this paper examined the effect of non-implementation of sports policy provisions in the development of athletic performance among youngsters in sub-Sahara Africa. Specifically, the study aimed to assess whether mass participation in sports by the citizenry will significantly increase production of high performers in Africa’s sporting enterprise. It examines whether compulsory teaching of physical education and sports in schools will significantly increase the rate of emergence of future elite athletes in sub-Sahara Africa. It also evaluate whether non-availability of basic sports facilities in schools impede development of athletic performance by youngsters and examine  whether or not the Presence of P.E. teachers and sports coaches will improve sports skills acquisition propensities among youngsters. To investigate the objectives a descriptive research design was adopted to gather data from secondary schools students through the distribution of questionnaire to 800 respondents. Meanwhile, from 800 copies of questionnaire distributed to the respondents only 760 were collected and analyzed. Both descriptive and inferential statistics of X2-test were used for the study. Findings show that mass participation in sports by the citizenry would significantly increase production of high performers in Nigeria sports and by consequence Africa. It was found that compulsory teaching of physical education and sports in Nigerian schools would significantly increase the rate of emergence of future elite athletes in Nigeria. The study further showed that non-availability of basic sports facilities in schools impede development of athletic performance by youngsters and that the Presence of P.E. teachers and sports coaches improved sports skills acquisition propensities among youngsters. The study concluded that sports policy and development of athletic performance among youngsters were positively related.

Keywords: Sports policy, Policy implementation, Sports development, Athletic performance, Youngsters
INTRODUCTION

Countries of the sub-Sahara Africa often experience mixed fortunes on the global sport stage, as they cannot sustain top notch athletic performances overtime. This is due largely to an apparent lack of concrete planning in the administration of sports in Africa (Bell & Daniels, 2020). Elite athletes from this clime usually emerge per chance and not as a result of a deliberately sustained arrangement to bring them to the fore. It is not unusual therefore to have an African athlete who breaks through at the world championship but could not sustain this level of performance at the Olympics. As the FIFA soccer world cup beckons in Qatar, it would not be much of a surprise, if African teams achieve outstanding feats at the soccer mundial. Nigeria, Cameroon, Morocco, Senegal, Ghana and others have at one time or the other excelled on this particular stage of global sport. However, their performance outputs could not be sustained after the world cup. Rather than the monumental feat on the global stage to have an effect on their various domestic games, it instead triggered off mass exodus of elite players from the local leagues to foreign lands. Nigeria, a prominent member of this group of nations can boast of producing a good number of these elite athletes. Names like Austin Okocha, Kanu Nwankwo, Mary Onyali, Chioma Ajunwa, Tobi Amusan, Segun Toriola, Michael Oyebode Aruna Quadri etc., are of Nigeria origin and have brought global fame to Nigeria via sporting excellence. While some of these famous feats alluded to were like fairy tales of the distant past, the more recent ones feel like tales of the unexpected. It is true that Nigeria and Nigerians are lovers of sport, and as a multi-ethnic society put aside political and tribal differences to support their national teams; they are also aware of what appear to be a less than competent administrative set up for running sporting affairs (Bolarinwa, 2021).

The important slot that sport occupies in Nigeria’s national life is probably something that cannot be over emphasized. Sports is not just a pastime for Nigerians, it is a national obsession and a unifying force (Bichi n.d.; Efebeh, 2020). This fact is not lost on Nigerians, as many have argued that sports remain the only thing that unites virtually all Nigerians. The few successes achieved by Nigerian National Football Team at certain editions of the CAF/Africa Cup of Nations notably Tunisia 1993; South Africa, 2013 readily come to mind. It shows how effectively sports could help foster the much desired national unity in Nigeria. Nigerians from all walks of life became truly patriotic, loving Nigeria above all things. Tribal sentiment and other prejudices were buried to fertilize a new found bond of oneness. This however is not occurring with sufficient regularity and the euphoria associated with such victories soon evaporates to be replaced by feeling of despondency among the national populace due to much more consistently unsuccessful attempts at earning international sporting glory.

Nations with reputation for regular international sports glory are known to have put in place good sports policies (Chen, et al., 2021). Provisions of which are religiously adhered to. They see sports as a major contributor to human and economic development (Karp & Yoels 1990; Jarvie 2011; Svensson 2017; Kleiber and Kirshnit 2019). They therefore pursue sports development with the same vigor and seriousness with which they approach economic development. The same could not be said of Nigeria and other developing nations where sports were perceived as a social responsibility of the central government and until recent time have no concrete sports policy in place (Toriola 2000; Yazid 2014). The need for clear policy guidelines in the business of sports development is imperative because of the painstaking and concerted effort required in the pursuit of developmental goals in general. To be able to put sports development in proper perspective, one needs to view development from the stand point of the economist who sees development as the accumulation of usually marginal increments gained and sustained over time. Adebayo, 2010 defines economic development as the aggregate of economic growths experienced and sustained by an economic system over a period of time. By this position of the economist, sports development will involve growth within a sporting system that happen in a continuum. Such growth or increments must then be sustained via consistent maintenance and prevention of decay. The results are relatively permanent changes either in physical structures (infrastructures, facilities), sophistication (finesse, aesthetics) and performance (effectiveness, efficiency). It involves marked improvement in technology (equipment, tools), skills acquisition and efficiency in organizational, administrative and institutional set up. In concurrence, The Federal Republic of Nigeria Sports Development Policy (1989) defines sports development as; a continuous improvement of sports structures institutions and programmes in order to create a societal condition conducive to physical fitness for all and the effective functioning and self-actualization.

Development of any kind is often a long tedious process that must be carefully planned for and assiduously implemented (Hanson, 2019). Governments and National Administrations usually put a formal plan in place to serve as blueprint for developmental goals. These plans of action or blueprints are known as Government or public policies (Mueller 2020; Smith & Larimer, 2018). Public policy may be viewed as a shrewd, prudent plan of action, adopted by a group of people with the power to carry it out. According to Cochran et al., (2009) it is a purposive and consistent course of action produced as a response to a perceived problem of a society, formulated by a specific political process and adopted, implemented, and enforced by a public agency. These concise, clearly defined plans of action are not necessarily visible in the Nigeria sport sector, therefore uncoordinated and spontaneous regimes of activities became the order of the day in the sector. However, the clarion calls for sports policies to be formulated for Nigeria sport received favorable responses in the last three decades. The Federal Government came up with policy frameworks within this period, namely the National Sports Development Policies of 1989 and 2009 as well as the National Sport Industry Policy of 2020. These policy documents, aside from highlighting the importance that the Federal Government attaches to the development of the sports sector of the economy; it further articulates the roles which each tier of Government must play, in the quest for all round sports development and consequently; the transformation of promising youngsters into elite athletes.

By way of analysis, the National Sports Development Policy of 2009 and that of 2020 make the following provisions:

  • Integration of sports into primary and secondary schools curriculum to target children between the ages of 5-15 years for early identification and grooming of talents into future champions.
  • Compulsory recognition and teaching of Physical Education and Sports in schools to enhance mass production of sports talents to be fed into high performance sports centers.
  • Building of school based community sports centers to encourage mass participation by all and sundry for fitness and emergence of young budding sports talents.
  • Deliberate production and scientific training of sports teachers, coaches and other professionals administrative and technical; to be posted to schools and communities in every Local Governments.
  • Establishment of high performance sports centers for the training and development of elite athletes nationwide.
  • Laudable as the aforementioned policy provisions may appear, their implementation and execution into concrete projects is questionable with little or no evidence of their impact on the sport sector of the economy.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Meaning and Definition of Sports Development

The British Sports Council, (1990), defined Sports development as a process by which interest and desire to take part in sport may be created in those who are currently indifferent to the message of sport; or by which those now not taking part but well-disposed may be provided with appropriate opportunities to do so; or by which those currently taking part may be enabled to do so with meaningful frequency and greater satisfaction, thus enabling participants at all levels to achieve their full potential. Collins, (1995) sees sports development as a process whereby effective opportunities, processes, systems and structures are set up to enable and encourage people in all or any particular groups and areas to take part in sport and recreation or to improve their performance to whatsoever level they desire. In similar vein Eady, (1993) construed sports development as provision of more and better quality opportunities for people, irrespective of age, gender or level of ability/disability, to access sport.

Pursuant to these definitions, the British Sports Council (1993) further posited thus: Sports development is about ensuring the pathways and structures are in place to enable people to learn basic movement skills, participate in sports of their choice, develop their basic competence and performance, and reach levels of excellence.  Sports development and by extension the development of athletic performance must happen in a continuum.  Opportunity must be provided for people to progress in their pursuit of sporting interest in recommended levels. Sport England (2022), itemized key principles of sport development continuum i.e. deliberate stimulation of increased participation level of the people in sport and physical activities, increment in level of inclusivity to allow level playing ground for all, and create structures that allow people to make measurable progress in their level of sport participation.

Sport is also credited as a potent force in human development (Edwards, 2015). Klieber & Kirshnit, (2019) posited that sport has the power and the appeal to facilitate human development as well as alleviate economic deprivation. Sport therefore should be embraced by Governments in sub-Sahara Africa; as obtainable in developed nations of the world. This particular strategy could be implemented in two key ways, namely; development of sport in communities, and development of communities through sport (Holt, deal & Pankow, 2020; Dai & Menhas, 2020). The authors alluded to the concept of positive youth development (PYD), which is a strength based approach to children and adolescent development the assumption is that every youth has inherent potential for development, and could achieve this potential via sport participation. According to Dai & Menhas, (2020) sport could be used to establish skills and toolkits useful for independent and healthy living and also contribute to economic empowerment and earning generation an SDG goal. Sport is also a powerful instrument for poverty eradication, and could be used to raise fund and foster alliances; another SDG goal. Sport is also a tool for the stimulation of food production, food protection, babance diet and organic farming (Ibrahim, n.d.). Therefore, Sports development became part of Government priorities in many nations of the world because of the roles it is expected to play in our communities. According to Coalter, (2002) sports could be employed to facilitate human development in areas of social and economic deprivation. Sports development programmes in areas of social and economic deprivation usually have two broad, interdependent, aims (Svensson, 2016).

  • The development of sport in communities.
  • The development of communities through sport.
  • The Development of Sport in Communities

The main aim of such programmes is sporting inclusion. The desired sporting outcomes of such projects can include:

  • Removal of barriers to sports participation in the community among the general population or target groups.
  • Provision of opportunities to progress and to develop sporting skills and expertise.
  • Provision of opportunities to move from recreational participation to competition or excellence.
  • Training and support of leaders and coaches.
  • Establishment of links between school, sports clubs and the wider community.

Long term development of Athletic Performance

Development of athletic performance is believed to involve the introduction of youngsters to the processes of athletic training from their formative years. Scientific research has concluded that it takes eight-to-twelve years of training for a talented player/athlete to reach elite levels. This is called the ten-year or 10,000 hour rule, which translates to slightly more than three hours of practice daily for ten years (Ericsson, Krampe and Tesch-Romer, 1993; Ericsson and Charness, 1994, Bloom, 1985). Unfortunately and as Balyi, (2003) observed; parents and coaches in many sports still approach training with an attitude best characterized as "peaking by Friday," where a short-term approach is taken to training and performance with an overemphasis on immediate results. We now know that a long-term commitment to practice and training is required to produce elite players/athletes in all sports.

Theoretical Framework

There are two theories on which the study is hinged, namely, theories of reasoned action and symbolic interaction theory.

Theory of Reason Action

According to the Theory of Reason and Action (Fishbien & Ajzen, 1975) a person's behavioral purpose, which is influenced by both their attitude toward the behavior and the effect of social variables, is the most crucial component in determining their behavior. Personal ideas about the expected effects of behavior, as well as an assessment of those effects, determine attitude. If the individual thinks that engaging in regular physical activity is anticipated, they will likely have a favorable attitude toward physical activity. According to this theory, attitude is made up of an assessment of the degree of perceived enjoyment and the degree of benefit or discomfort connected to the behavior.

A person's subjective norm is determined by how motivated they are to act on the opinions of significant persons who have an impact on their lives and how they see the target behavior. It describes the societal pressure to engage in or refrain from using certain behaviors. More recently, it has also been proposed to include a component that indicates how much one's social network engages in the behavior (Rhodes & Courneya, 2003). According to the Theory of Reasoned Action, the likelihood of participating in sports would be higher if:

  1. A person believes that physical activity will be joyful
  2. Participating in physical activity will only produce valuable benefits and minimum suffering
  3. A person's social circle will encourage them to exercise
  4. An individual's social network is active

Symbolic interaction theory

Translation of sports injury prevention research findings into improved community sport safety policy and practice necessitates an awareness of the implementation context (Finch, 2006, 2011). Especially when policy creation happens at a distance from policy implementation context. As a theoretical approach, symbolic interactionism can help policy implementers grasp the interaction between a policy, its implementation context, and the policymakers' intentions. Symbolic interactionism assumes that people act in accordance with the meanings of things. Therefore, people determine the importance of objects in reference to their personal aspirations and act accordingly. In this instance, the policy is or may become an integral part of the lives of those who participate in community AF groups. Policy implementation efforts can be informed by an investigation of people's opinions of the significance of such policies. The adoption of a policy can affect the behavior and interactions of individuals in a given situation, as they understand and define it. Given that "people create meaning in different ways even in respect to the same occurrences" (Crotty, 1998: 9), revealing the varied meaning constructions can have policy implications. When implementers incorporate a policy into local contexts, varied interpretations of meaning among implementers might result in policy outcomes that diverge significantly from policymakers' goals. Using a symbolic interactionist perspective that was mostly based on Charon's (2007, 2010) interpretation, this study documented the interpretative process of individuals as they were exposed to the policy.

EMPIRICAL REVIEW

Smith, (2021) examined a study on the effect of policy implementation on sports development among Colorado State University students for the period 2020 using a descriptive research design to gather data from 230 purposely selected students across faculty. The author adopted both descriptive and inferential statistics of (X2) Chi-Square test to investigate whether or not policy implementation regarding sport development had impacted on students’ achievement in their various sports. Meanwhile, from 230 copies of questionnaire distributed to the respondents only 210 copies were returned. The result of the chi square-test revealed that policy implantation on sports development in Colorado University influenced students’ achievement in their various chosen sports. The author concluded that policy implementation was essentially needed for sports development.

Alex & Davidson, (2020) assessed the effect of policy implementation of sports developments on secondary schools students’ achievement in long jump in selected States Secondary schools in Sweden. The authors used a longitudinal survey research design to select two set of respondents for the study. These respondents were students and teachers. in all the authors selected 450 respondents for the study and the instrument used was distributed accordingly. Meanwhile, from 450 copies of questionnaire distributed to the respondents only 430 copies were returned. The descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation were used for the study. The result obtained showed that policy implementation design for sport development enhanced the students’ achievement in long jump. The study concluded that policy implementation regarding sport development was positively related to students’ achievement in long jump.

Mane, (2020) carried out a study on the effect of sport policy on football development among primary school students in Senegal for the period 2015-2018 using an ex-post facto research design to gather secondary data for the study. The study adopted Ordinary Least Square (OLS) to analyze the data collected for the study. The author used the logarithms of  budgetary allocation to primary education board on sport as proxy for sport development and used the numbers of inter and intra state football competition won by the selected secondary primary school as proxy for football development. The result of the OLS obtained revealed that sport policy was not significant on football development among primary school in Senegal. The author concluded that lack of political will to utilize budgetary allocation on sport was affecting negatively football development in primary school in Senegal.

In the context of Nigeria, Olorunsola (2018) examined the effectiveness of sport policy on sport development among youngsters in Ilorin South Local Government Area of Kwara State. A descriptive research design was adopted by the author to gather data for the study through the administration of questionnaire to some selected Physical and Health Education teachers in some purposely selected secondary schools in the State. The author used the descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation to investigate the objective of the study. More so, 89 P.H.E. teachers were considered for the study. The result of the descriptive statistics obtained showed that sport policy implementation affected sports development among Youngers positively. The author concluded that for Youngers to develop their sports skills, necessary policy must be religiously implemented.

METHODOLOGY

The descriptive survey research design was adopted for this study. According to Fawole, Egbokhare, Itiola, Odejide and Olayinka (2006) descriptive surveys do not attempt a manipulation of the variable only the description of the variables as they naturally occur. The design is therefore suitable for gathering data about belief, opinion, attitude and record events that can be analyzed and interpreted to measure relationship between variables. The population for this study will comprise of all students in the thirteen governments funded secondary schools in Surulere Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. This is expected to comprise essentially of youngsters who are the primary source of sporting talents in a community. Simple random sampling technique was used to select eight from the total of thirteen government funded schools in Surulere Local Government Area of Oyo State. Systematic random sampling technique was used to select one hundred (100) students from each of the eight schools selected making a total number of eight hundred (800) students as respondents for the study. A self-developed questionnaire was used in gathering data for this study. The research instrument is divided into two sections A and B. Section A dealt with demographic information of the respondents; while section B contained close ended questions, designed to elicit responses from respondents. The questionnaire made use of the modified four point likert summated rating of strongly agrees, agree, disagree and strongly disagree. The items on the questionnaire are open ended type, with opinion rating stated as follow: Strongly Agree (SA) = 4, Agree (A) = 3, Disagree (D) = 2, Strongly Disagree (SD) = 1.

Moreover, to ensure the validity of the research instrument, experts in the department of Human Kinetics and health Education, University of Ibadan were relied upon for comments, correction and modification of the instrument. Experts in measurement and evaluation were also consulted for content and construct validation of the instrument. Reliability, refer to the ability of a test instrument to produce the same result on repeated usage. In order to ensure reliability of the research instrument, the corrected version was administered on twenty (20) respondents from Ikeji Arakeji Community Grammar school, who will not form part of the main study. The split half method was adopted and data were analyzed using the Cronbach alpha coefficient to determine the internal consistency of the research instrument. The completed questionnaire was collected, collated, coded and analyzed; using both descriptive and inferential statistics of Chi-Square test (X2-test). The descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation  were used to meaningfully describe the data collected for the study  while the inferential statistics of X2-test was used to investigate the objectives of the study. Meanwhile, from 800 copies of questionnaire distributed to the respondents only 760 copies were returned and used.

EMPIRICAL RESULTS

Table 1 presented the result of the X2-test computed for investigating whether Mass Participation in sports by the citizenry will not significantly increase production of high performers in Nigeria sports. Looking critically at the result in the table, it could be inferred that mass participation in sports by the citizenry might increase production of high performers in Nigeria sport. This statement was premised on the fact that adequate numbers of the respondents agreed to all the test statements. For instance, it was discovered that substantial numbers of the respondents agreed that there was a regular gathering of people in the community to play sports every market day. This statement was due to the fact that the mean value computed for the test statement of 3.75 was far greater than the acceptable mean of 2.50. this reaffirmed that allowing the people of Surulere to participate in organized sports events might lead to the discovery of high performers fort Nigeria sports.; the p-value of the X2-test for the test item of 0.0000 was less than the critical value of. 5%. All the other test items also affirmed that mass participation in sports led to the discovery of high performers for Nigeria. Thus, it was not true that Mass Participation in sports by the citizenry would not significantly increase production of high performers in Nigeria sports.

The result in Table 2 provided a meaningful answer to hypothesis two which stated that compulsory teaching of physical education and sports in Nigerian schools will not significantly increase the rate of emergence of future elite athletes in Nigeria. Looking at the Table 2, it was found that adequate numbers of the respondents agreed that Compulsory teaching of physical education and sports in Nigerian schools would significantly increase the rate of emergence of future elite athletes in Nigeria. This inferred was based on the fact that the X2-test obtained for the test variables confirmed that the test items were significant. For instance, it was found that teaching of sports in the selected schools would arouse youngsters interest in many sporting events, acquisition of sporting skills among youngsters would improve significantly, if sport was made part of the school programme and introduction of many sporting event through schools may provide optimum opportunity to many youngsters to participate in sports. The statements were based on the fact that the p-values of the X2-test computed for the test variables of 0.0003, 0.0000 and 0.0001 were all less than the critical value of 5% with significant X2-test statistics. The implication of this was that with government commitment towards enhancing sports development and schools determination to ensure that students participated fully in sports events, the production of future elite sportsmen and women might be made easy. Thus, as a result of this it might be asserted that it was not true that Compulsory teaching of physical education and sports in Nigerian schools would not significantly increase the rate of emergence of future elite athletes in Nigeria.


Table 3 presented the result of the X2-test computed to investigate whether or not non-availability of basic sports facilities in schools would impede development of athletic performance by youngsters. Looking at the result in the table, it was discovered that sufficient numbers of the respondents were in support of the fact that the non-availability of basic sports facilities would impede the development of athletic. For example, adequate numbers of the respondents agreed that Schools in the community were not provided with basic facilities for diverse games and sports. This according to the respondents the researcher interacted with had affected the production of high achievers athletic that could fly the flag of the community high at the national level. It had impeded the growth of sports in the community seriously and many youngsters that should take to sports were in crime today. Also, it was discovered that substantial numbers of the respondents agreed that despite the lack of facilities many youths in the community still engage in various sports and games in addition, it was found that the lacked of facilities had affected negatively the inability of the community to produce National athletes. Therefore, it was reasonable to state that the lacked of facilities for diverse sports and game in schools in Surulere Local Government of Oyo State had been a serious impede to the development of sports in the community.

Table 4 presented the result of the X2-calculated for the Presence of P.E. teachers and sports coaches and improvement in sports skills acquisition propensities among youngsters. From the result in the table, it was discovered that substantial; numbers of the respondents agreed that; presence of PE Teachers and sports Coaches in the selected schools would help us develop interest in diverse games, employment of Coaches in schools will enable teaching of sports skills to youngsters and presence of Coaches in the schools and community might facilitate regular practice that will lead to improvement of sports skills. These agreements were based on the fact that the X2-calculatred for the test statements that of 45.657, 32.786 and 43.453 were greater than the X2-tabulated of 7.231 with p-values of 0.0000, 0.0000 and 0.0000 respectively in that order that were less than the critical value of 5%. The relevance of this was that with the present of physical and health education in schools in the community the ability of the students to be able to develop their inborn sports skills and talents might be enhanced. This was because the P.H.E teachers and coaches might be able to integrate new knowledge and skills that would enable the students to know which areas of sports they were better off.  Therefore, it was reasonable le to infer that presence of P.E. teachers and sports coaches would significantly improve sports skills acquisition propensities among youngsters.


CONCLUSION

The result of the study had indicated that sports policy was relevant to sports development in Surulere LGA’s of Oyo State. Therefore, based on the finding of the study, the following conclusions were made.

It might be concluded that mass participation in sports by the citizenry might significantly increase production of high performers in Nigeria sports.

Compulsory teaching of physical education and sports in Nigerian schools could significantly increase the rate of emergence of future elite athletes in Nigeria.

That non-availability of basic sports facilities in schools could significantly impede development of athletic performance by youngsters and that Presence of P.E. teachers and sports coaches will not significantly improve sports skills acquisition propensities among youngsters.

RECOMMENDATIONS

The following recommendations are made.

There is need for the Local Government educational Board Authority to encourage development of sports particulars among students of post primary schools through intra and inter sports participations. This may help to shift the attention of the youngsters in the community from crime to sports.

Physical and health education must be made mandatory for all junior and senior secondary schools in order to encourage participation of all and sundries ion sporting activities, thus, encouraging sports developments in Oyo State.

There is need for the government, old students association, parent and teachers associations and well to do in the society to intervene in providing the needed sports facilities in the selected schools in Surulere community. This is the only way the schools may enjoy sports activities and enhance sports development in the state.

Government should endeavor to employ qualified Physical and Health Education in the secondary schools. This is necessary in order to enhance the development of future sportsmen and women for the State and Nigeria in general.

Adebayo, A. A. (2007). Economics A Simplified Approach. Lagos African International Publishers.

Adesina, S. (1977). Educational Planning in Nigeria. Lagos. University of Lagos Press

Aibueku, S. O. (2011) Comparative Analysis of Nigeria’s Sports Development Policies. Ozean Journal of Applied Sciences, Ozean Publication.

Bell, B., & Daniels, J. (2020). Sport development in challenging times Leverage of sport events for legacy in disadvantaged communities. In Creating and Managing a Sustainable Sporting Future pp: 115-136.

Boardof Education (1933). Syllabus of Physical Training for Schools.  London. His Majestys Stationery Office York House.

Bolarinwa, O. M. (2021). Influence of Sports Facilities and Equipment on Sports Participation among Secondary School Students in Ekiti State Nigeria. International Journal of Educational Research 4, 73-87.

Buabeng, T. (2005). Implementing Public policy at the Local Level in Ghana the Experience of Akwapen South District Poverty Reduction. Dissertation of M. Phil University of Bergen.

Chen, S., Preuss, H., Hu, X., Kenyon, J., & Liang, X. (2021). Sport policy development in China: Legacies of Beijing’s 2008 summer Olympic Games and 2022 winter Olympic games. Journal of Global Sport Management, 6, 234-263.

Coalter, F. A.( 2002. Sports and Community Development A Manual. Edinburgh. Sportscotland.

Dai, J., & Menhas, R. (2020). Sustainable development goals sports and physical activity the localization of health related sustainable development goals through sports in China a narrative review. Risk Management and Healthcare Policy pp: 1419-1430.

Dowling, M., Leopkey, B., & Smith, L. (2018). Governance in sport: A scoping review. Journal of Sport Management, 32, 438-451.

Dye, T. 1972.Understanding Public Policy. Eaglewood Cliffs, N.J. Prentice-Hall.

Edwards, M. B. (2015). The role of sport in community capacity building: An examination of sport for development research and practice. Sport Management Review, 18(1), 6-19.

Ekejiuba, A. (2011). Promoting Nigerian Indigenous Sports. The Nigerian Voice Available online at: http://www.thenigerianvoice.com/nvmovie/47727/3/promoting-nigerian-indigenous-sports.html

Elmore, R. F. (1979).Backward mapping: Implementation Research and Policy Decision. Political Science Quarterly, 94, 601-616.

Enahoro, A. (1965). Fugitive Offender The story of a Political Prisoner. London. Cassell & Company Ltd.

Encyclopedia Britanica. (2012). Nigeria Sports and Recreation. Available online at: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/414840/Nigeria

Eyestone, E.(1977).The Threads of Public Policy A  Study in Policy Leadership. Indianapolis. Bobs Marril.

Fawole, I. Egbokhare, F. O. Itiola, O. A. Odejide, A. I. &. Olayinka, A. I. (2006). Definition Spectrum and Types of Research. Methodology of Basic and Applied Research. Ibadan the Post Graduate School University of Ibadan. Chapter 1: 1-17.

Giacchino S. & Kkabadse A. (2003).Successful Policy Implementation the Route to Building Self-Confident Government. International Review of Administrative Sciences 69, 139-160.

Hanson, A. H. (2019). Public enterprise and economic development. Routledge.

Hill, M. &  Hupe, P.(2006).Implementing public policy. London. Sage Publication.

Holt, N. L., Deal, C. J., & Pankow, K. (2020). Positive youth development through sport. Handbook of Sport Psychology, pp, 429-446.

Ibrahim, B. Physical education as an instrument for poverty eradication and self-reliance for national development.

Kleiber, D. A., & Kirshnit, C. E. (2019). Sport involvement and identity formation. In Mind-Body Maturity pp: 193-212. Taylor & Francis.

Ladani,B. A. & Nwisukha, A. (2009). The Impact of Colonial Physical Training Syllabi on the Development of Physical Education and Sport in Nigeria. Available online at: www.abu.edu.ng/publications/2009-06-24-125053_2685

Ladani, B. A. (1978). An Examination of British Influence on the Development of Sport in Nigeria from 1861 to the Present. Unpublished Master’s Thesis University of Western Ontario London Canada.

Mackenzie, B. (2006). Medicine Ball Training. Available online at: www.brainmac.co.uk/1tad.htm

Morakinyo, E. O. & Aluko, E. O. (2009). Management Factors as Predictors of Sports Development in Selected Sports Federation of the Federal Ministry of Sports and Social Development in Nigeria. Available online at: https://ojcs.siue.edu/ojs/index.php/ijaaas/article/view/106/166

Ogundipe, G. A. T., Lucas, E. O., Sanni, A. I., Olayinka, A. I., Taiwo, V. O., (2006). Systematic Collection of Data. Methodology of Basic and Applied Research Ibadan the Post Graduate School, University of Ibadan. Chapter 6, 95-111.

Ojeme, E. O. (1992). Investment in Sports in Local Government Area Problem and Prospect. Port Harcourt Paper Presented at the N. S. C. Zonal Seminar on Sponsorship and Promotion of Grassroot Sport in Nigeria.

O’Toole, L.J.R. Jr. (1995). Rational Choice and Policy Implementation: Implications for Interorganizational Network Management. The American Review of Public Administration, 25, 43-57.

Oyalowo, A. (2012). The Disgrace Called Nigeria’s Participation in Sports. Available online at: http://www.ekekeee.com/the-disgrace-called-nigerias-sport-participation-by-ayobami-oyalowo

Palumbo, D. J. & Donald, J. (1990).Implementation and the Policy Process opening the Black Box.New York, Wetport Greenwood Press.

Pressman, J. L. & Wildavsky, A. (1984). Policy Implementation. Bekeley University of California Press.

Siegel, R.I. & Winberg, L.R. (1977). Comparing Public Policies United States Soviet Union and Europe  Homewood  Illinois. The Dorsey Press.

Shebu, I. (1995). An Assessment of the implementation of National Sports Development Policy in Nigeria Universities. Unpublished Ph.D thesis submitted to the University of Benin.

Sho-Silva, T. (1984). The problems of sports development in Nigeria. The Guardian .62.

Svensson, P. G., Hancock, M. G., & Hums, M. A. (2016). Examining the educative aims and practices of decision-makers in sport for development and peace organizations. Sport Education and Society, 21, 495-512.

Zheng, J., Chen, S., Tan, T. C., & Lau, P. W. C. (2018). Sport policy in China (mainland). International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics, 10, 469-491.