Research Article
UGLY REPERCUSSION OF SOCIAL POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC SITUATION TOWARDS TOURISM OF NGAPALI BEACH
Myo Aung* and Thet Lwin Toh
Corresponding Author: Myo Aung, Management of Lincoln University in Malaysia, Freelance Consultant for Economic Development, Tourism Sector and Social Affairs in Myanmar.
Received: 20 December, 2022; Revised: 03 January, 2023; Accepted: 06 January, 2023 Available Online: 31 January, 2023
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Myanmar is rich in natural resources and has a long coastal with Adman Sea and India Ocean bordering with Bangladesh, India, China, Lao, Thailand countries. Therefore, it has opportunity of tourism sector and trade development in ASEAN and other neighboring countries. This article will find to develop tourism sector development at Ngapali beach, one of the most clean, luxurious, and beautiful Beach in Myanmar and ASEAN. Research methods will be applied desk review, field observations, case study, expertise discussions upon impacts factors towards Ngapali beach tourism. Particularly, politics, economic, social status related impacts will be assessed and guides to positive improvement in organization capacity development and operational management building up to overcome challenges on tourism sector of Ngapali beach. These findings and recommendations might be applied on tourism development in Inle Lake, Bagan, Chaungtha beach, and other popular destinations of Myanmar.

Keywords: Tourism, Politics, Economics, Social status, Ngapali beach, Myanmar
 
INTRODUCTION

According to World Tourism Organization, 2022 report, UNWTO promotes the responsible, sustainable and universally accessible tourism through generating market knowledge, promoting competitive and sustainable tourism policies, and education and trainings projects in over 100 countries around the world. It is great opportunity to develop tourism sector of Myanmar, particularly the most popular beaches destinations like Ngapali Beach, Chaungtha Beach and Ngwesaung Beach as international relax places occurring natural view of sea and mountains.

Tourism is a leading industry in the modern world in terms of its size and rate of growth. It provides economic benefits and international relationships to countries that foster its development by attracting foreign visitors with their foreign currency. Therefore, tourism is a necessary sector for many countries and it may help secure jobs for local residents and tourism-oriented businesses (Natalia Tomczewska-Popowycz & Lukasz Quirini-Poplawski, 2021).

Myanmar is world famous for the temples in Bagan and balancing fishermen at Inle Lake. Ngapali is a quiet area with one long main road along the coastline. It is a bike trip to explore the Ngapli along 10 km of road with fresh breeze from the blue sea. It can be accessed by road across deep natural forest or fly directly to Thandwe airport, closed to its natural beauty beach as virgin destination for all. It is long life since British colonial time of 1930s to now as simple and luxurious hotel and natural landscape surrounding honest ethnic Rakhine villages (Figure 1).

General politics of Myanmar

Myanmar gained her independence in 1948 and longest civil war in the world for decentralization, democracy transformation, army coup challenges attributed to one of poorest country in the world (Adam Burke et al., 2017). As Noel, 2022 two years ago, on 1st Feb of 2021, after national elections win by National League of Democracy (NLD) won, the military coup power of Democracy Government. There were protests the whole country, particularly youth, women, actors, teachers and doctors to support the democracy and detainee politicians of NLD party. Western countries put sanctions to the military government and only Russia government supported them. There are fighting among ethnic armed groups like KIA, KNU, Arakan Army (AA) and ‘People Defense Forces’ (PDF) supported by National Unity Government (NUG).

According to report of OCHA Myanmar in collaboration with UN agencies in Dec, 2022 (Reliefweb, 2022) more than 1.4 million people are displaced across the country, of whom more than 1.1 million were displaced since the 2021 military takeover. Armed clashes, compounded by tight security, access restrictions, and threats against aid workers, continue to hamper humanitarian operations across Myanmar. Inflection in commodity prices, including for food and fuel, is deepening the socio-economic stress on communities. Therefore, the humanitarian situation continues to be dominated by hostilities and increasing economic stress for millions of people. Frequent, indiscriminate attacks, including airstrikes and artillery fire in civilian areas mostly in Sagaing Region, Kayah State and Kayin State. Nearly 31,000 civilian properties, including houses, churches, monasteries, and schools had been destroyed.

Due to political conflicts, covid-19 outbreak and civil war in Myanmar during 2020 to now, people are challenging to set up own business and living incomes for family. According by The World Bank, 2022.

OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH

This research will promote awareness and understanding by international or domestic investment who loves natural beauty of beaches in Myanmar.

Specific objectives will be;

  • Analysis on repercussion of politics, economic and social impact to tourism business of Ngapali Beach
  • To promote natural conservation plus business development in tourism sector
  • FDI and local investment through beach conservation and natural resources preservation for climate change and global warming protection

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  • What is current situation of tourism sector in Ngapali beach?
  • What are challenges to improve tourism sector
  • What factors of economic, social and political status influences to tourism
  • How to improve status of tourism in Ngapali (organizational capacity, operational management, investment, strategy, etc.)

RESEARCH METHOD

Desk review of politics, economic and social impact to tourism sector of Myanmar as well as international theory, experiences, challenges and solutions through marketing, policy change and operational management of beach destinations.

Field observation to Ngapali beach and interview to hotel manager, restaurant staff, transportation people (bike, car taxi drivers), local business owners, tour operators, local guides, activists and villagers of Ngapali Beach. Data of tourists, list of hotels and maps of locations are collected and analyzed.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Political influences to tourism sector (International and Myanmar)

As Endy, (2022) tourism is also easy to dismiss as a superficial activity involving prepackaged, staged encounters. The word ‘tourist’ began in the 18th century as a neutral synonym for ‘traveler’. The historical record shows that tourists are pretty good at thinking for themselves. Indeed, international travel can help build solidarity with other countries. Abrupt Street protests, social unrest, civil war, acts of terrorism.

What does the political nature of tourism mean for today? For starters, Americans with the ability to travel abroad could think more deliberately about combining politics with pleasure when choosing their destinations. Thus, government officials themselves should give more attention to tourism’s ability to sustain the challenging destinations and its affections. The president of the American Chamber of Commerce in Taiwan has called on Taiwan’s government to welcome more foreign tourists as a matter of ‘national security’.

Overseas travel has always involved politics alongside leisure and escapism. Presidents and special envoys might dominate the headlines, but ordinary tourists can also shape diplomacy, one vacation at a time.

In Dec, 2022, there has more supportive steps by political pressure by US Government like ‘Burma Act of 2022’ and European countries to legitimize roles of PDF and NUG as international democracy process in Myanmar and free of NLD leaders who face long sentences in prisons (Click & Watch, 2022). The NDAA 2023 has been approved from the US House of Representatives and the law will take action to solve the matter of terrorist Myanmar military, genocide and war crime cases.

Economic influences to tourism sector (International and Myanmar)

According to Natalia Tomczewska-Popowycz & Lukasz Quirini-Poplawski, (2021), Europe, this includes the Russian Federation, is a leading tourist region of the world, attracting 709.9 million foreign tourists in 2018. The top tourist destinations in Europe are France, Spain, Italy, Great Britain, and Germany. Among in Europe tourism destinations, Ukraine is unpopular among tourists, with only 14.2 million tourists in 2018. Tourism yields 5.6% of Ukraine’s GDP or 1.08 billion USD. Ukraine ranks 156th in the world in terms of total revenue from tourism. Ukraine is home to a fairly large Russian language population (18%), which is strongly concentrated in its eastern provinces and the Crimean Peninsula. Since 2013, there are political conflicts in Crimea and eastern provinces have become problematic for foreign tourists. The World Economic Forum Report lists Ukraine as one of the leading countries with the highest number of persons killed or wounded per terrorist attack. Thus, Ukraine placed in 17th among 136 examined states in terrorism incidence. According to the global peace index (GPI), Ukraine is very low in pace as 148th of 163 examined states.

Social affairs related to tourism sector development

Tourism has a direct impact on communities. This means that tourists directly interact with locals and their environment like participating in events or activities and sharing bad practices to local youths who are honest and simple one. Furthermore, tourism can be a good way to learn about destination’ cultures and gain a general understanding of them. However, tourism can also lead to loss of traditional culture and customs. Increased tourists also results in increased traffic which can impact to travel of local people.

The responsible traveler today visits a place in order to get to know its people, culture and history. Social impact tourism promises for sustainable travel with an opportunity to experiences of travelers (Like a local tours, 2022). Now, socially conscious tourism is growing. It is no longer enough for travelers to simply visit a place and check off the top ‘things to do’ or most famous sights to see. More and more travelers want to experience the local culture and interact these local peoples. Travelers want to make their trip unique and feel new experiences in social relationship or support to local.

Thus, travelers should not use more resources than are available or harm the environment, so that future generations can benefit from tourist’ left behind the good or bad things. It must ensure there will be things to see and do for future generations of tourists, it must reduce waste and the impact on the natural world. It must build up three pillars at community level of destinations as ‘education’, ‘empowerment’, local community development through partnerships in tourism sector’, ‘environmental stewardship’, ‘local culture respect’, and ‘gender development’, etc.

Therefore, the increasing awareness in the need for more social respect and responsible tourism can help local communities’ social, culture and dignity as well.

Organizational capacity building, strategy and policy amendment for sustainable tourism development in beach destination

In Heah, (2006) ‘The GBRMPA High Standard Tourism Program’ by Australia is designed for enhancing environmental protection, reef health and tourism sustainability as world-class experience for visitors. In essence, the GBRMPA provides substantial incentives for tourism operators to voluntarily implement high standards of operations via independent certification offer. This practice can promote tourism operators’ capacity and quality outcome for tourists and host communities as well.

In addition, by working in harmony with other management tools, such as zoning, the management plans, permits, legislation, policy and other voluntary partnership programs, the GBRMPA High Standard Tourism helps reinforce the tourism business organizations.

As Heah, (2006) Borneo Adventure in Malaysia is a classic role model in sustainable tourism since 1987. Its mission to put ecotourism in the right perspective of tour operators show best practice acting in effective ways along a good operation capacity on sustainable tourism management.

Wild Asia is independent Malaysian conservation organization that aims to promote the conservation of natural areas in Asia and to promote ‘Responsible tourism’ across Asia through supportive capacity of tourism operations.

Asia has been prone to natural and man-made crisis related to tourism industry with the tsunami, COVID-19 and civil war/crisis like Myanmar, Afghanistan, Thailand, China, North Korea, India, Malaysia, etc. There are accounted the efforts of World Tourism Organization (WTO) to support tourism sectors as World Tourism Organization, (2005). On 26th December 2004, a powerful earthquake rocked the earth along its seabed off the Sumatra. A tsunami of devastating force was subsequently across the Indian Ocean affecting countries. WTO provides assistance to the affected countries in the aftermath of the disaster as their available capacity and technical resources to the biggest loss of lives of tourists and workers in the tourism sector during the worst disaster damage. An emergency task force was formed, comprising all 29 members of the Executive Council, high level international experts including PATA, ASEAN and UNESCAP (Table 1).

Ngapali beach located west coast of Myanmar facing Bay of Bangle, one of the most beautiful unspoiled beaches in Myanmar. It was known as Eastern Napoli beach during British colonial days. However, it is not busy or crowded with tourists and some local rich visitors visit since 2021 to now (Table 2).

There has long white sand beach, fresh air, and natural forests with mountains surrounding and beauty of sun set. It will need more marketing activities and creating the competitive costs and services to attract visitors.

There have 65 hotels and guest houses to cover over 2,000 rooms along the palm-fingered white sands. It is genuinely a pristine paradise. However, most hotels have only 30-50% of room been occupied, even though peak season of December to April.

The hard-core option is by bus to Ngapali Beach, however, it is unsafe due to conflict of AA Rakhine armed group and military since 2021 to now. There is no VIP buses are JJ or other excellent buses which can make the trip to Ngapali Beach. There are normal and clean buses but the road it would be an adventure. Buses can take you to Ngapali from Yangon and can take up to 16 h. The other option is to get in and from Ngapali to Bagan by bus. Time riders 12 h and both are evening buses. Roads are not upgraded in years and after the rainy season in Myanmar they do get worse for a few months till they get some repairs (Table 3).


Even if it is the most expensive option to travel to Ngapali it is the most used one for the tourists and local visitors who are rich due to the time and comfort to use the flight to Thandwe airport (closed to Ngapali Beach). There are daily flights from Yangon to Ngapali (mostly in the morning and early afternoon) and flights back from Ngapali to Yangon (mostly in the late afternoon). Due to international sanction and after army coup of 2021, tourists’ arrival to Ngapali Beach is very low and only local rich family visited by flights.

Flights ticket prices are increased 3 times if comparison with before 2021 to now. Currently, numbers of flight decrease to Ngapali beach and daily 3 flights of 50-60 passengers can be found. Therefore, it is challenging for flight companies like ‘Kanbaw Za Airway’, ‘Myanmar Airway’ and sometimes combine flights are arranged due to low passengers, saving flight fuel cost and other logistic cost.

Flights ticket fees are higher for ordinary visitors and number of visitors decrease to visit Ngapali beach and most go to Ngwesaung and Chaunges, travel cost per visitor is only nearly 50,000 Myanmar Kyats (17 USD) and Ngapali flight tickets is nearly 270,000 MMK (90 USD).

Hotels fees are expensive than other tourism destinations based on type of facilities and room service quality (view to sea, double room, swimming pool facility, breakfast, etc). Ngapali’ hotel of medium class room charges 150,000 MMK (50 USD) to 200,000 MMK (67 USD) per night and most visitors stay at cheap resort of low-quality hotel that only charges 30,000 MMK (10 USD) to 50,000 MMK (17 USD) per night. Thus, this beach tourism Industry will be taken off in compare with hyper competition in other countries due to higher cost and other weak factors.

Food cost and local transportation to islands, villages are expensive due to three times fuel costs than 2021 year. Thus, local people and visitors use more food expenses and it is challenging to sustain tourism sector of Ngapali Beach if it is compared with other low food cost or transportation cost’ beach destinations (Figure 2).

Most hotels open from October to May and moon raining season of June to September is closed due to no or low visitors. However, hotel staffs are paid partially and they must work other low payment jobs or capacity building training attending by themselves. Hotel staff gets low wages of 150,000 MMK (50 USD) to 200,000 MMK (67 USD) based of types of tasks and skill capacity as chief, cleaner, waiter, security guard, receptionists, etc. Foreigner’ chief leave the hotels due to conflict of war in Rakhine and Myanmar other places, it is replaced by local chief in luxury hotels. However, quality of food is lack due to their skill and imported low food gradients quality. All of hotel food and drinks are really two times or three times higher price and most visitors rely on outside food or local restaurants (Figures 3 & 4).



Most of hotels are located very close to sea and narrow beach makes small public places for relaxation, sun bath, playing on sand beaches.

Politics is stable at beach destination; there has no conflict or interest to political issues.

Tourism businesses are already slowing down since 2021 and it will take time to recover as normal situation of 2019 to 2020.

Society of villagers, staff of hotel and tourism sector’ personnel have low income and poverty in their family as hardship of politics, lack of visitors.

DISCUSSIONS

The resilience of tourism has been evident over the past couple of years in the world. This is expected to continue throughout the rest of 2022 as more. However, the number of vacation rentals have gone through the roof as travelers seek a deeper connection with the places they visit, sometimes seeking more convent prices over natural and quiet beaches like Ngapali Beach over bigger properties.

Tourism recovery may be well reflected by the strong financials and capital expenditure plans reported by online booking services and budget airlines to country and its popular destination like Thandwe airport for Ngapali Beach.

From an FDI perspective, it is difficult to forecast FDI bouncing back to 2020 due to COVID and political unrest in the whole Myanmar as well as today’s fractious geopolitical environment, particularly by Ukraine-Russia, China-Taiwan, North Korea-Japan & South Korea and inflection of oil prices and global economy. However, it will hope in next 5 years, once that recovery comes full circle on new investment campaigns particularly in Southeast Asia as in motion a new and high new FDI cycle, particularly natural destinations like Ngapali Beach and other beaches of Myanmar.

Tourism service sector is huge and emerged sector. Thus, Ngapali tourism’s supply chain has needed to develop crucially at the performance, customers’ satisfaction and cost efficiency in its service sector to compete with other popular beach destination in Asia (Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, etc.). Supply chain management has a massive influence to change the service industry’ functional pattern through meeting the customer’s demand while they visit to beach of Ngapali with the most efficient flow of tourism activities or products.

Sandy beach is one of the most common ecosystems of the Ngapali beach area. It provides a wide range of ecosystem services, harbor unique biological diversity and deliver important socio-ecological value. Climate change translates to increasing impacts of sea level rise, waves, storms, erosion and landward recession of the shoreline.

Myanmar reopened international border in 2022 May, regional flights scheduled to fly to Yangon from Bangkok, Singapore and Kuala Lumpur etc. Although Tourists visa allowed to apply by online known as eVisa (Business/ Tourist) Leisure Tourists are not so many visits Myanmar according to MoHT report visitors’ arrival approached over 80,000 pax within 6 months in 2022. Majority of Tourists from nabour countries such as Thailand, Vietnam, China and India etc. At present, Junta Government encourage welcoming Russian Tourists to Myanmar by permitting visa free, direct flight assessment and Russian speaking guides training.

However, Russian, Chinese Leisure Tourists are being targeted by Myanmar Authority for tourism industry; there are various challenges for Tourism sector in recent situations in Myanmar.

There has to improve policy issues of tourism sector development in Myanmar. For example, eVisa, Online system, Travel Insurance policy, unsafe travel sites especially western part of Irrawaddy river and Remote area of potential Tourists ‘sites and inefficient skill labors in Hospitality Industry. The reason why, Junta Government’s Barrier Free Tourism policy should be reviewed for those challenges.

Myanmar is challenging while transformation democracy and political stability since her independence in 1948 to now due to poor governance and lack of cooperation among political stakeholders. It will need to find solutions and external support from neighboring countries like China, India and ASEAN countries as well. It will need sharing power of central government to ethnic groups like Kachin, Shan, Rakhine, Karen, Mon, etc.

Whatever it may be, travelers and tourists are never ending in Tourism Industry, Since Myanmar is still hidden destination among unspoiled Tour sites in Indochina region, there are big potential destinations and new products are being emerged in Myanmar upon political changes and safety issues.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Ngapali Beach, one of the best-known beaches in Myanmar, with the increasing hotels and resorts are being built along the beach in Ngapali. It will need more research, consultancy and investment to develop the sustainable and responsible tourism.

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS

Clean beach

It must be established the coastal municipalities through the direct cost of keeping Ngapali beach and its residence to be clean and clear of litters and it will imply for tourism and recreation. Direct cost must cover the collection, transportation, disposal of litter, and administrative costs like monitoring, education to stakeholders, community mobilizations for cleaning practices and management operations.

It must ensure everywhere of beach must clean, attractive and safe for visitors as priority as well as, protect the local economy and tourism industry. It must have sufficient budget for the cost of cleaning by municipality including tourism sector’ personnel, Gov.; department and elected local residents from villages in Ngapali beach.

It must persuade the participation on the beach cleaning with the people of visitors, voluntary organizations, local CBOs, volunteers, hotel, restaurants and local business sector. Thus, visitors have opportunity to meet local volunteer and residents as a reward while cleaning of Ngapali. That must set up beach clean schemes intersection with holidays that must welcome tourists and youth volunteers as well.

Visitors must pack several compostable bags in their carry-on. Hotels and restaurants must use trash/recycle bags and trash bins along beach of Ngapali and properly cleaning management by municipality. Recycling is still limited and beach stakeholders must use the recycling facilities. Visitors must apply social media for beach cleanup activities of before and after photo to invite or encourage their friends and others.

Natural Conservation

It will need actually care for the Ngapali Beach and swim sites. Tourist activities can hurt the beach by contributing to the contamination of the water, making life hard for wildlife, or damaging the delicate beach environment. Natural forest conservation activities are too poor and mountains must be greening by laws and community participations. It will need more natural conservation projects and mangrove plantations along coastal of Rakhine State.

Safety destination

Ngapali Beach is special place, known in Myanmar for its beauty and attracting to visitors. Thus, it should have active policy of safety in beach that agreed by visitors and all stakeholders to conduct it. To create an effective policy, consultation with both internal stakeholders and the wider community must be included. Creating a good policy will assist to combat overly risk-averse incidents and manage the safety arrangements.

Logistic and supply management

Logistics must be accumulated planning, control and implementation of the effective movement, different storage and other related facilities of tourism related goods, services like facilities, inventories and transportation related on Ngapali beach.

Hotel environment, transportation (flight, boat, car fee) and many hotel properties must start in improving efficiencies and its logistics and supply chain management operations at Ngapali Beach tourism sector needs to be competitive by focusing on costs reduction and quality of services as international standard for tourists and local visitors as well.

Therefore, there must be higher competition and customer expectations in the supply chain market in areas like product availability and flexibility in operation through many companies focusing on how their supply chain may make them competitive in the tourism market, at least for ASEAN and Asia tourists. Consequences of that, supply chain management will touch on the mixture of different supply chain activities to help maximize companies’ profit and total value.

Information must be consistent and smart while operating of supply chain management among diversified members of suppliers, firms (hotels, motels, Inn), tourists and travel operators. Effective steps will be data collecting, transmitting and processing data for the visitors’ requirement regarding the quality of available services, price, quantity, market inventories, etc. It must ensure the efficient actions on the feedback which is given by tourists regarding the service. The information should be shared in both offline and online.

The major competition in hotels tourism sector must ensure the service quality and price as the standard service to the customers and fulfill customers demand on Ngapali beach visit. Therefore, it will be great to establish management operating system in tourism sector as typical performance on real time delivery, quality of services or goods received by customers, responding capability to the customers, cycle time for resolution of customers’ complaints and supply quality assessment.

Political stability and peace

The transformation of democracy

The transformation of democracy in Myanmar and particularly Rakhine State influences tourism sector development in Ngapali Beach destination. Myanmar’s February, 2022 coup, staged by military leaders to topple the democratically elected government, make political unrest and civil war fighting till now. It will need more international negotiations to transform democracy practices and peace process the whole country as UN and international organizations commitment. It will need community participation, political parties and EAOs like Kachin, Kayah, Kayin and Rakhine’ groups. However, Ngapali Beach will need peaceful democracy transition for respective host communities and it will need listening voice of communities and their need as well.

Conflict management (respect, discussion, negotiation)

There will need conflict management practices and capacity building among the youth of future generation to work together in politics and country or regional development in Myanmar, particularly at Ngapali Beach. It will need awareness raising, capacity building, research and conflict resolutions by individual, community and actors at Ngapali Beach. Conflicts will be the physical or psychological struggle associated with the perception of opposing or incompatible goals, desires, wants or needs. Thus, it must overcome with respecting to each other, discussion on conflict of interest and finally negotiations for win-win status among the disputes issues.

Peace building in Rakhine and Myanmar

Myanmar owns longest civil war in the world that since 1950 to now due to unclear constitution and poor governance system that dominant by Bamar ethnic to other ethnics.  Thus, it will need sharing power and responsibility to other ethnic in terms of government structure, education, health and infrastructure facility to remoted country side. Tourism development is important that remoted areas while proceeding peaceful destination creation cum rural development, particularly Rakhine State and Chin State that belongs natural attractions than others. First step is national peace through real democracy development and sustainable peace building in ethnic states.

Economic improvement Destination promotion

It is important to set up ‘Destination Management Organization’ at Ngapali Beach’ tourism sector as economic driver, community marketer, tourism industry coordinator and builder of community pride. This organization must operate destination marketing activity which may conduct the form of advertising, direct marketing, sales promotion, and public relations.

There must create as competitive position in the competitive position in the marketplace through greater levels of awareness of the destination to the potential markets like Russia, Egypt, and Cambodia through collaborative efforts.

Investment in Ngapali beach

Governance is a key enabler, or deterrent, for investors as it determines how easily and successfully tourism business may operate. Destinations offering minimal commercial risks or regulatory barriers as well as a stable government and economy can provide fertile ground for hotel development and expansion. Therefore, Myanmar should provide an enabling environment for foreign investment with less restrictive regulations, particularly in ethnic states like Ngapali beach, Putao Ice Mountain, Inlay Lake and Myeik islands, etc.

Ngapali beach destination stands out for her natural beauty combines with Adman Sea and Indian Ocean view, long white sand beach, and access to beautiful islands and Rakhine Roma Mountains connection from Himalia Ranges of China and India. Quiet villages, fresh air, honest Rakhine ethnic culture observations are unique to be invited tourism sector than other business in Asia. It will need trade show or media invitation for new investment from her country and other countries who can invest in tourism sector plus natural beauty conservation interested investors. Thus, Government must discuss with local community to participate and share benefits together with outside investors through natural beauty preserving as much as. In addition, domestic and foreign companies must be treated equally under Myanmar investment law in the ability to start a tourism business and regarding health, safety and environmental regulations.

Loan/credit for SMEs in tourism sector

It will need to support loan for SMEs development in Ngapali tourism sector. Thus, Government policy and private banks should find business plan of tourism as well as capacity building to business development in there.

Social life supports

Capacity building to local communities (Politics, economic, environment of beach)

Local communities are poor livelihood, health, education facility due to all previous governance poor management and low budget for its. Myanmar Tourism Federation and other donor agency like WTO should be advocated by local communities and researchers to obtain their technical supports in marketing, social media promotion, hospitality and responsible performances for services and natural conservations.

Organizational capacity development

It will need to conduct assessment on current organizational capacity of tourism sector in Myanmar, particularly on beaches destinations. It should lead by Myanmar Tourism Federation and academic Universities of Myanmar to promote capacity of hotel and hospital management, networking and marketing.

Networking of communities and investors

It will recommend trust building among communities and investors to gain win-win situation on management, benefits sharing and networking for sustainable and responsible tourism for local community and its environment as well. All information, data and challenges must be discussed to become international nature-based beach of Ngapali.

All will need review on land use planning, business model, tourism activities, mangrove conservation and livelihood development program in line with national tourism development plan of Myanmar through short-term and long-term agreed goals.

Poverty alleviation

Most of community around Ngapal Beach is fishermen with low income and it has more than 50% of poverty. If it will create culture tourism or community-based ecotourism, it will need more attractive locations for visitors to forest, villages, local farm works, etc. It will need better road, electricity, literacy people, and safety environment for visitors.

Government policy of poverty alleviation may not workable and private sector involvement will be essential in poverty alleviation process.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We thank to restaurant staff, villagers, hotel staff, transportation personnel and experts of tourism sector in Ngapali and Myanmar to accomplish this article. Also, we would acknowledge to Ms. Nyein Tsu (Myanmar Voyages International Tourism) for her contribution of lists of Tables related to arrival of visitors and other valuable information.

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