Research Article
TOURISM GROANING UNDER THE WEIGHT OF COVID–19 AND ITS IMPACT OF TOURISM A REVIEW AND PRESENTATION TO ADDRESS PANDEMIC - AND ITS INFLUENCE ON TOURISM INCOME
Burhan Mahmoud Awad Alomari* & Ihab Ahmad Awad Alomari
Corresponding Author:
Received: 06 June 2020; Revised: 22 June 2020; Accepted: 25 June 2020 Available Online: 29 January 2021
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Corona virus is tightening its grip on global tourism seriously to its future, the situation is everywhere, especially in East Asia, and in Europe, and the tourism sector is increasingly concerned. The tourism sector is currently in a state of complete paralysis. Despite efforts by policymakers around the world to mitigate the economic impact of the emerging Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, the tourism sector will be able to start recovery only after the medical emergency is brought under control and travel bans are lifted safely. The longer this health crisis lasts, the more difficult it will be for companies to survive and survive, especially small and medium-sized companies that make up a large proportion of the tourism sector, and the number of affected workers will accordingly increase.

Since its outbreak, the corona virus continues to wreak havoc in the global economy until it has paralyzed it, hindering production, supply and air transport throughout the world, weakening global demand, isolating and placing countries under quarantine, and another under curfew, and afflicting the financial, aviation, transportation and tourism sectors with heavy losses.

 

Corona virus is tightening its grip on global tourism seriously to its future, the situation is everywhere, especially in East Asia, and in Europe, and the tourism sector is increasingly concerned. The tourism sector is currently in a state of complete paralysis. Despite efforts by policymakers around the world to mitigate the economic impact of the emerging Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, the tourism sector will be able to start recovery only after the medical emergency is brought under control and travel bans are lifted safely. The longer this health crisis lasts, the more difficult it will be for companies to survive and survive, especially small and medium-sized companies that make up a large proportion of the tourism sector, and the number of affected workers will accordingly increase.
Since its outbreak, the corona virus continues to wreak havoc in the global economy until it has paralyzed it, hindering production, supply and air transport throughout the world, weakening global demand, isolating and placing countries under quarantine, and another under curfew, and afflicting the financial, aviation, transportation and tourism sectors with heavy losses.
 

Arab and foreign economists expect that the consequences of the closure and home quarantine against the Corona virus on global economies, especially the third world countries, including Jordan, will be severe in view of what the economy was experiencing before this pandemic due to several regional factors and the interruption of export and internal and external travel and the movement locally and globally, including the sector The tourism sector is most affected (Harald James Forum, 2020).

Despite the authorization of the governments to implement the defense law and strict precautions, most countries are seriously considering resuming the work of important economic sectors, including the tourism sector. And governments tend to reopen economic and tourism activity, to ensure the continuation of the productive sectors, especially small and medium enterprises, which have been severely affected by the closure, and constitute an important part of the economic activity movement.

As the tourism sector is now completely paralyzed. Despite the efforts of policymakers around the world to mitigate the economic impact of the Corona Virus Pandemic (COVID-19) pandemic, the tourism sector will not be able to start recovery until the medical emergency in the world is controlled and the travel ban decisions are safely lifted. The longer this health crisis lasts, the more difficult it will be for companies to survive and survive, especially small and medium-sized companies that make up a large proportion of the tourism sector, and the number of affected workers will accordingly increase. Archaeological sites, natural reserves and environmental tourism have been damaged as they are part of global tourism, especially in its new concept around the world, especially Jordan, which contains a lot of protected areas and the beautiful green environment that Lost has lost.

Global and local tourism

The global economic movement did not stop the wheel of global tourism with the new COVID-19. It became what is known as the Levant, from the Arab Maghreb to Istanbul, passing through Tunisia and Egypt, then Lebanon and Jordan. It is a leading Arab and Islamic tourist destination that were negatively affected by the repercussions of the Corona virus. Thousands of reservations were canceled. Hundreds of flights, jobs and workers have been disrupted, and the list of losses continues to grow day after day.

Through research and observation of what is happening globally since the outbreak of the COVID-19, the researcher spoke to officials, specialists in the tourism sector, economic experts, social and environmental and to all kinds of societies globally, even Arabic and Islamic societies, the researcher found the huge negative effects on all sectors, including the tourism sector.

The Corona pandemic left natural reserves alone without visitors, and protected areas and their workers from local communities lost their livelihood, and ecotourism lost its “hateful” luster on the impact of the virus that forced the world to stay in homes.

Since its outbreak, the Corona virus continues to wreak havoc in the global economy until it has paralyzed it, hindering production, supply and air transport throughout the world, weakening global demand, isolating and placing countries under quarantine, and another under curfew, and afflicting the financial, aviation, transportation and tourism sectors with heavy losses.

Empty hotels of visitors, canceled trips, closed tourist and economic attractions, Corona virus paralyzes tourism and the global economy is exhausted. From now on, the tourism sector expects billions of dollars in losses, the Arab and Islamic world, America and Europe now, and for three months in the face of the Corona crisis, since the spread of the virus, even in Italy, popular tourist destinations remained empty of people. In Venice and Milan, museums, theaters, and tourist attractions remain closed, and major activities, even Jordan and the Arab and Islamic countries, have been canceled. Even in France, the Louvre remained closed for consecutive days, because workers stopped working for fear of possible infection (Borsa, Akhbiyah & Akhbaria, 2020).

 

RESEARCH PROBLEM

COVID-19 had the virus, caused by a new strain of coronavirus (acute coronary virus 2), which had a major impact on tourism and travel behavior than any global epidemic that infects living memory in humans. So, tourism now it is outside of public health has become one of the main public faces of COVID-19 in the international media (Arabiya, 2020). The nature of the tourism system means that tourism contributed to the spread of the disease and witnessed the consequences of the disease on all parts of the tourism value and supply chains. The global spread of the disease and the application of classical controls on the disease have shaped quarantine, low mobility and isolation have a major impact on both international and domestic tourism, along with a range of sector-specific effects, including transportation, travel, reservation, hospitality, restaurants, conferences, events, and tourist attractions, especially in Third world countries, most of which mean huge economic problems, including Jordan (Arabiya, 2020).

 

Research Questions

  1. Is the outbreak of the COVID-19 virus poses a major and evolving challenge for the tourism sector?
  2. Is the World Tourism Organization is in constant contact with the World Health Organization to ensure a reliable voice that responds to global tourism?
  3. How the World Tourism Organization appeals to the tourism sector and travelers to tackle this challenge wisely and to take proportional measures?
  4. Tourism is currently one of the most affected sectors, and the World Tourism Organization is revising its forecast for 2020, knowing that it is not possible in the current situation to conduct any assessment of the impact of the COVID-19 virus on international tourism?
  5. WHO is currently advising against restrictions on travel or trade with countries experiencing COVID-19 outbreaks?

 

 

GLOBAL TOURISM SECTOR LOSSES DUE TO CORONA IS THE HIGHEST IN TWENTY YEARS

The global tourism sector was hit by a major crisis due to the outbreak of the Corona virus (COVID-19) (Jazeera, 2020) which the World Tourism Organization described as “the most severe in the past 20 years, expressing its hope that it will return to recovery after the end of the crisis”.

The Secretary-General of the World Tourism Organization, Zurab Pololikashvili, said: “Tourism is among the most affected areas of all economic sectors. However, tourism is also united in helping to tackle this massive health emergency, and our first priority while working together to mitigate the impact of the crisis, particularly on employment, and support recovery efforts on a larger scale by creating jobs and advancing economic well-being around the world”.

He stressed that tourism is one of the regions most affected by all economic sectors in the world. He added, “Millions of jobs inside the sector are at risk of being lost, and about 80% of all tourism businesses are small and medium-sized companies, and this sector was leading the way in providing job opportunities”. The organization presented its statistics on the sector’s losses during the three largest crises that have passed through the sector since 2000 until now, which revealed that tourism revenue losses due to corona will be the highest.

Corona’s crisis is the biggest and led to the biggest losses for the tourism sector in 20 years, according to World Tourism Organization statistics:

  1. The rate of decline in the year 2001 with the events of September 11 reached -3.1%.
  2. In 2003, when the SARS outbreak spread, tourism sector losses were just -0.4%.
  3. In 2009, with the global financial and economic crisis, losses were -4%.
  4. The World Tourism Organization expects a decrease in the numbers of tourists this year 2020, by -20% to -30% over 2019.
  5. The revenue of the tourism sector will range from $ 300-450 billion, down from 2019.

Based on what has been presented (tourism is getting sick and not dying) 3 global crises have affected international tourism in the past twenty years ... the terrorist events of September 11. SARS virus in 2003. Economic crisis 2009. And global tourism: The most severe corona.

Therefore, the researcher found during the investigation process that in the Middle East region, especially the least wealthy Arab countries, the dues of more than 400,000 tourism workers are a hot file in front of the physics and tourist rooms that collect the value of the monthly salaries and establish a plan for crisis management and strict procedures towards those who are arbitrary with their employees and hotels, some of which will give their members Full salary.

Through the researcher’s briefing on the pages of social media, television stations, magazines and daily newspapers in this regard, it was revealed that there is a state of anxiety that was clearly demonstrated through the pages of social communication and tourism groups that include companies and workers, where there were lengthy discussions about the demands of workers in the sector and the limited capabilities of investors, and the movements of governments, especially Arab ones to support the sector in this regard, especially in the Corona crisis.

 

CORONA VIRUS THREATENS WORLD TOURISM PARALYSIS

Corona virus is tightening its grip on global tourism seriously and its future, the situation is everywhere in the world, especially in East Asia, and in Europe the tourism sector is increasingly concerned (Woo, 2020).

Made for Mind newspaper DW.COM published on its page 14/5/2020 that in Egypt (Egyptian doctors are accused of treason after warning of the collapse of the health sector and accusing the Ministry of Health of mismanaging the crisis and failure to protect medical personnel. The reality denied by the relevant ministry and the extent of the Corona pandemic in Egypt and asking about the fact of the dispute between the Medical Syndicate and the Ministry of Health in Egypt) (UNWTO, 2020).

 

EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF THE COVID-19 VIRUS OUTBREAK ON INTERNATIONAL TOURISM THE RESEARCHER BY THE FOLLOWING

The international tourism sector has witnessed continuous growth despite some temporary shocks, which indicates the strength and flexibility of the tourism sector and that it benefits the regions of the world. International tourism did not know the decline until 2003 due to severe acute psychological syndrome (SARS), and during the Iraq war, and in 2009 in the midst of the economic and financial crisis, knowing that it soon returned to a strong recovery in the following years.

The tourism sector is currently one of the sectors most affected by the outbreak of Coronavirus (COVID 19), and the effects of this have appeared on both supply and demand for travel, especially in China, America, and many European and third world countries through travel restrictions, isolation or Domestic stone.

These international measures imposed on travel and international tourism, in addition to canceling flights or limiting their frequency, resulted in a significant contraction in the supply of travel services (domestic and international), while the decline in demand continued.

As the COVID-19 virus has become a new regression hazard in the context of an already weak global economy. Moreover, the COVID-19 outbreak is adding to a situation of some turmoil due to ongoing geopolitical, social and trade tensions, the effects of the UK exit from the European Union, and the imbalance in the performance of the main exporting travel markets.

By looking at the many tools available to the researcher that the situation is constantly evolving, it is too early to estimate the full impact of COVID-19 virus on international tourism.

Today, considering the severe acute syndrome scenario (SARS), the size and dynamics of the global travel market, the current travel disruptions, the geographical spread of the COVID-19 virus and its real and sudden economic impact, the World Tourism Organization estimates that the number of international tourists has decreased in 2020 at a global level by It ranges between 1% and 5%, instead of 5% to 7% growth, as expected in early May, 2020. It results in a loss of between $ 40 and $ 60 billion in international visitor spending (international tourism receipts).

Currently, Asia and the Pacific are the regions worst affected, with a decrease of 12% and 16% in the number of international tourists arriving in 2020, instead of a growth of between 8% and 10% as expected in early May 2012.

These estimates were read with caution, due to the fluctuation in the development of the outbreak, which may lead to further revisions to the expectations of other researchers. As for the expectations of other regions of the world, it is premature, given that the situation is developing rapidly (UNWTO, 2020).

The impact of the COVID-19 virus outbreak will undoubtedly be felt throughout the tourism value chain. Small and medium enterprises are expected to be affected in particular and some of these institutions can close their doors if the disease continues to spread more, which requires support and recovery measures for the tourism sector in the most affected countries such as Jordan, Egypt and the Arab Gulf states.

Global tourism researchers will continue to monitor the impact of the Covid-19 virus on international and domestic tourism and provide the latest data and analysis.

 

INTERNATIONAL TOURISM - GROWTH AND RESILIENCE

International tourism has witnessed continuous growth despite some temporary shocks, which indicates the strength and resilience of the tourism sector and that it benefits all regions of the world.

International tourism did not know the decline until 2003 due to severe acute psychological syndrome (SARS), and during the Iraq war, and in 2009 in the midst of the economic and financial crisis, knowing that it soon returned to a strong recovery in the following years (UNWTO, 2020) (Figure 1).

 

Figure 1. Inbound international tourism during the years (1995-2019).

Source: UNWTO

 

Likewise, the World Tourism Organization, published on 5/3/2020, showed that incoming international tourism in the world (in percentages and subject to change). By informing the researcher and the process of research, investigation and investigation of a number of tourism experts, the proportions are much more than what was stated in their publication (WHO, 2015).

Depending on the scenario of severe acute psychiatric syndrome, known as SARS, the size and dynamics of the global travel market, current travel disorders and the geographical spread of the COVID-19 after starting in China and spread to a number of countries in the world and through its potential economic impact, the World Tourism Organization estimates that the number of international tourists It may decrease in 2020 at the global level by between 1% and 3%, instead of growth between 3% and 4%, as expected in early January and May, 2020 more specifically through many media programs issued in this regard (Figure 2).

 

Figure 2. Revised 2020 forecast - Inbound international tourism, World (million).

Source: UNWTO

 

The World Tourism Organization estimates that the number of international tourists may decrease in 2020 around the world by 1% to 3%, rather than growth between 3% and 4%, as expected in early January (Figure 3).

 

Figure 3. Growth estimate of number of international tourists in 2020.

Source: UNWTO

 

 

China as a global market source whose exports of goods in the Corona pandemic have decreased (Figure 3).

In 2003, China was the seventh largest economy in the world, accounting for 4% of global GDP. Today it is the second largest company and accounts for 16% of the global economy.

In 2003, China represented 3% of total spending on international tourism, and today it represents 20%.

According to what has been exposed, and through global tourism forecasts, for sector losses during 2020 due to Corona, the researcher believes that we can summarize them in a number of key points as follows:

Nowadays, the tourism sector is currently considered one of the sectors most affected by the outbreak of the Coronavirus virus (COVID-19), and its negative impact on both supply and demand for travel around the world.

  1. International tourism may decrease by 1% to 3% during the current year 2020 in the world.
  2. This decrease resulted in a loss estimated at between 30 to 50 billion USD.
  3. These figures came in comparison to the SARS scenario that spread in 2002/2003 and its impact.
  4. The Asia-Pacific region is the region worst affected by the decrease in the number of tourists by 9% to 12% in 2020 compared to an expected growth from 5% to 6% in early January.
  5. The biggest impact will be on small and medium-sized companies, which may be subject to bankruptcy and potential closure.
  6. The current phase is similar to the year 2003 during the SARS virus epidemic, the Iraq war in 1991, the eleventh of September 2001, the global economic and financial crisis in 2009 and the wars in Syria, Yemen and Libya that led to a sharp decline in tourism to the Middle East and Africa and its impact on Jordan Significantly and with the rise of airline tickets and marine tourism to increase insurance policies.
  7. The most prominent high impact markets are China and the manufacturing countries in Europe and America, the world leader in spending, as well as on other major Asian markets and European destinations such as Italy, Germany, Britain and France.
  8. Restrictions imposed on travel, home quarantine, closure of markets and tourism areas, which have become negative due to the global corona pandemic and the cancellation or reduction of flights led to a significant decrease in the provision of travel services (domestic and international).

 

QUESTIONS WERE SUBMITTED TO SOME OF THE SPECIALISTS IN THE TOURISM FIELDIS TOURISM AFFECTED IN THE ARAB COUNTRIES AND JORDAN IN PARTICULAR WITH “CORONA VIRUS”?

 

The majority of the interrogators emphasized that since the spread of the Corona virus in the world, especially in the Arab world, the economies of the countries it is affected have been affected until it has caused major impacts on the global and local economy, and that the impact of the virus after the World Health Organization declared that Corona is a "global epidemic" and "pandemic", what It caused the striking of the tourism and oil market, the wheel of production and the rates of its production, and the international and local stock exchanges, in addition to many sectors involved in the national product of each country, including trade, industry, agriculture and tourism.

The tourism sector is one of the most important fields for many countries in the world that depend on it for its annual GDP, especially since it contributes to more than 12% of the total global output annually. (COVID-19 tourism has been severely affected, which led to general neglect of tourist areas due to quarantine and the complete closure of state institutions.

The virus has dealt a severe blow to the tourism sector and all related branches and departments, such as tourist companies, airlines, hotels, restaurants, and country revenues from tourist visas, airports, ports, museums, tourist places, tax rates, and others.

 

 

ARE COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD AFFECTED BY THE CORONA VIRUS?

 

Corona’s outbreak hit the tourism sector in countries such as Italy, Spain, France, the United States of America and Turkey, in addition to China, the source of the first virus, as well as with South Korea, Japan, Singapore, Thailand and Malaysia.

It was expected that the number of tourists globally will decrease by 1% to 3% during the current year globally. Until now, the Asia Pacific region is the worst affected by the decrease in the number of tourists by 9% to 12% in the first quarter of 2020, compared to the expected growth from 5% to 6% in early January.

An official from the Manila-based Asian Development Bank said the outbreak of the Coruna virus would reduce economic growth in Asia and around the world this year. He added, “The spread of the virus may reduce global gross output between 0.1 and 0.4%, with financial losses expected to reach between 77 and 347 billion dollars”. And it has been emphasized that airlines have suffered the most losses since the disease began, but hotel establishments such as “Hyatt” for hotels and tour operators such as “Carnival” and travel companies such as “TUI” have also suffered losses, according to a Reuters report. He added, “In February, the number of Chinese airlines users decreased by 84.5%, which indicates the extent of the fatal economic impact on this country where the virus was born, especially in light of the presence of a population of 1.4 billion people”.

Does the people of the global tourism market stagnation threaten trillions?

An international specialist from Istanbul headquarters) Bulut Baghi, President of the World Tourism Forum Institute in Turkey (said during an interview in this regard through Skype:

The tourism and hospitality industry around the world have fallen to its lowest historical levels, driven by the spread of the Coruna virus around the world and global restrictions on cross-border trips.

He added that the losses of the global tourism market may reach one trillion dollars this year due to the measures taken to curb the spread of the “Corona emerging” virus. “Baghi” added during the article, that the current annual volume of the global tourism market is 1.7 trillion dollars.

From what was concluded, the researcher believes that tourism losses cannot stop at the value of one trillion dollars only, but that global tourism losses may affect employment in the sector, through the loss of 50 million jobs related to the sector.

The researcher believes that the tourism process stopped and almost died through the most recent data he received from international organizations, research conducted by the World Tourism Forum Institute, readings and access to what was published in the unread and readable means.

Baggi said that the new Corona virus is spreading very quickly, due to the globalization situation in the world and the continuous travel movement, adding: “70 percent of the tourism sector has already stopped”.

He added: “The relevant institutions in Turkey, especially the Ministry of Health, have taken important measures from day one, in order to prevent the spread of the new Corona virus”.

He continued: “However, some countries failed to take the necessary measures to limit the spread of the virus, especially the countries of the European Union, which led to things getting out of control, because of taking the necessary measures, but it was too late”.

The researcher believes that the tourism sector is one of the sectors that was directly affected by the spread of the new Corona virus, which was first seen in China and spread from it to all parts of the continents and almost all countries reached (188 countries).

 As the annual size of the global tourism market is 1.7 trillion dollars ... We meet constantly with international tourist investors, hotel groups and airlines, and according to the research that was found, the economic losses suffered by the global tourism sector so far amount to 600 billion dollars.

In turn, international companies operating on the system of payment by credit cards, such as American Express, Visa and MasterCard, revealed that the damage caused by the emerging. Corona virus to the global economy amounted to between 28-29 trillion dollars. And that the economic losses suffered by the global tourism sector due to the corona virus, are horrific, and that they could negatively affect other sectors related to tourism, which may exacerbate the economic losses.

 

WILL THE RECOVERY BE EASY ON THE GLOBAL MARKET?

 

By looking at a number of related articles, the researcher believes that airlines around the world are around the corner from serious crises, as some companies seek to eliminate the cash shortage, while other companies have suspended the agreements that were announced earlier. Whereas, the International Air Transport Association “IATA”, in a statement, expected that the losses of airlines around the world will reach 113 billion dollars, as one of the consequences of the “Corona” outbreak. And the association considered that the survival of the virus without expanding from its current level geographically, indicates losses of up to 63 billion, and the number climbs to a maximum of 113 billion in the event that it takes a wider range towards additional countries in Europe and the Americas.

The researcher believes that even if the epidemic is under control, the recovery of tourism will not be easy since the tourism workers and investors in the sector should focus on making double efforts during the last quarter of 2020.

 

Evaluating the impact of the COVID-19 virus outbreak on international tourism through a survey of a number of tourism professionals in Jordan and some other nationalities residing on the land of Jordan

 

A number of tourism experts confirmed in a special interview during the research process of the researcher that the Corona virus will definitely affect the tourism sector in Jordan as is the case on the rest of the world, whether in the short, medium or perhaps long term. According to sector experts, they explained that what has become evident on the reservation numbers for the upcoming seasons and the size of the cancellations for the current season, which requires collective and creative thinking and the best interests of the group and the country over the personal interest, which also requires reconsidering the restricted nationalities whose countries have not recorded any infections with this virus so far (Al-Ghad, 2020).

Through an investigation of Al-Jazeera Net in numbers about the impact of the Corona virus on tourism and aviation in the region: experts and stakeholders in the Jordanian tourism sector estimated the cancellation of tourist reservations by more than 30% during the current month of March, in addition to stopping demand for tourism programs. As these experts assert that the danger lies in stopping future reservations, after the Kingdom registered tourist reservations during the months of this year and the beginning of next year 2021. The head of the Jordanian Tourism Agents Association, Muhammad Samih, on 6/5/2020 through the Jordanian media, I see the Kingdom and the correspondents of some channels LCN, Al-Jazeera and Al-Arabiya described the tourism situation in Jordan during the past and current months as "catastrophic", and said that we are heading into a state of bankruptcy for major airlines, tourist offices, hotels, tourist transport, etc., and termination of work contracts for company employees, travel agencies, etc., as well as> for you That leads to paralysis and bankruptcy.

 

 

AVAILABLE FIGURES FOR THE RESEARCHER INDICATE THE FOLLOWING: JORDAN

 

  • Jordan welcomed more than 5.3 million tourists in 2019, compared to 4.9 million visitors in 2018.
  • Tourism revenue in Jordan increased in 2019 to 4.11 billion dinars (5.8 billion dollars), according to the Central Bank of Jordan.
  • The number of workers in tourist facilities is 53 thousand workers.
  • 35 thousand tourists from China visited the Kingdom last year, and the Ministry of Tourism's plan was to increase the number by 15-20% during the current year 2020.
  • The number of tourists from Italy in 2019 reached more than 89 thousand tourists, and the Ministry of Tourism was aiming to increase the number to reach 120 thousand in the current year.
  • The number of tourists for the months of March and April.

 

 

LEBANON FACES TWO CRISES AT THE SAME TIME

 

In Lebanon, there are no accurate figures yet as to the impact of the tourism and aviation sectors on the spread of the Corona virus, according to workers and experts. Experts attributed this to the fact that the emergence of the virus coincided with the severe financial and economic crisis hitting the country, which had the greatest impact on the decline in tourism and travel in the country. According to the head of the Syndicate of Travel and Tourism Owners Syndicate in Lebanon, Jean Abboud, many flights were canceled to and from Beirut, where a decrease in the number of flights through Harery Hariri International Airport, back and forth from 130 flights per day before the financial and economic crisis and the spread of the Corona virus, was recorded to nearly Thirty trips now. The number of passengers has decreased from 13,000 per day to between 5-6 thousand passengers, as sales of travel and tourism companies decreased monthly from about sixty million dollars before the financial crisis and the spread of the Corona virus to 18 million dollars in February. Also, many reservations were canceled in June and July, and all aviation offices began to pay half the salary to their employees, along with the layoffs of a number of their employees.

 

 

THE VOLUME OF TOURISM TO LEBANON IN NUMBERS

 

- Tourism revenue has reached some $ 9.5 billion in some years, but in 2019 it is believed to have reached about $ 3.5 billion.

-The contribution of the tourism sector to GDP last year was estimated at 8%.

-Tourism sector losses are estimated at 700 million dollars last year.

-The number of workers in the officially registered tourism sector is estimated at 150,000, but the workers, directly or indirectly, amount to more than four hundred thousand.

-The number of Chinese visitors to Lebanon was very small and did not exceed 20,000 last year.

-According to Middle East Airlines (Lebanese Airlines), the suspension of the company's flights to a number of Arab countries due to Corona costs the company about ninety thousand dollars per day, as well as the suspension of flights to Italy and some European countries cost about twenty thousand dollars per day.

-The sector contributes to providing job opportunities for about 25% of the Lebanese workforce, but in recent years it has retreated to 19%.

-The number of approved travel companies in Lebanon is 213.

-During the first eight months of 2019, Lebanon received more than one million and four hundred thousand tourists, according to the former Lebanese Minister of Tourism Awadis Kidanian.

 

 

 

 

TOURISM IN EGYPT

 

Head of the Chamber of Tourism Companies Hossam Al-Shaer - in press statements - that there is a decrease of 70-80% in the new reservations for the Egyptian destinations during this period, compared to the same period last year, due to the Corona virus, and denied any cancellation in the current reservations. According to the former member of the Chamber of Tourism in Egypt, Hassan Abdel Salam, and a member of the hotel room Sami Suleiman, there is no layoffs at this time. According to the statements of previous speakers, the future of the sector can only be determined after the full effects of the Corona virus on the world economy appear, but they are optimistic about the future. In order to face any repercussions of the virus, the Egyptian government formed a joint committee from the health and tourism sectors to meet permanently to discuss the developments of impacts, at a time when efforts to stimulate tourism abroad and attempts to bring new tourists continue, in addition to circulating instructions on the environment, health and prevention among workers in tourist facilities.

 

 

THE SIZE OF TOURISM TO EGYPT IN EGYPT NUMBERS

 

  • Inbound tourism contributes 15% of the country's GDP.
  • About three million Egyptians are associated with the tourism activity.
  • More than three hundred thousand people work in the tourism sector directly, according to official data.
  • The share of the private sector reached about 98% of tourism activity.
  • The number of tourists to Egypt reached more than 12 million tourists, according to official figures from last year, and it was expected to increase the number by 30%, according to official data.
  • The tourism sector generated revenues of about $ 12.6 billion in the 2018-2019 fiscal year.

 

 

TOURISM IN MOROCCO

 

According to officials responsible for the tourism sector, that it raises corona is limited and there are no accurate statistics on the size of cancellations of reservations due to the Corona virus, in contrast, officials in the tourism sector and hotels talk about delays. But local media have reported more than ten thousand cancellations in Marrakesh, one of the most important tourist destinations in Morocco. The Royal Air Force also suspended its flights - temporarily - from last Sunday, March 8, until next July, to and from the cities of Milan and Venice, following the decision of the Italian authorities to impose quarantine on them. Tourism professionals and hoteliers formed a crisis cell to follow up and take precautionary measures.

  • Tourism in numbers for the country of Morocco
  • Tourism in Morocco constitutes 7% of the gross domestic product.
  • The tourism sector provides 750 thousand jobs, which represents about 5% of the total economic employment rate. The number of foreign tourists at the end of 2019 was about 13 million, an increase of 5.2%, compared to 2018.
  • The tourism sector achieved revenues of 78.6 billion dirhams ($ 8.11 billion) in 2019, up 7.7% from 2018.

 

GREEN TUNISIA AND TRAVEL AGENCY LOSSES

 

Tunisia (Green Tunisia) and travel agency losses. There is a decline in most European tourism markets against the background of the spread of the Corona virus and its disruption and paralysis in the air and maritime transport sectors. Tunisia, like most global tourist destinations, according to observers, will be negatively affected by this health crisis, and may lead to a decrease in the number of arrivals to it by about 70% until the end of next September, especially in light of the influx of tourists from neighboring countries during the holy month of Ramadan, and it will continue for another notice. The university professor specialized in tourism matters, Moez Qassem - in an interview on Skype Network during my talk with him on 16 - FS / 2020 indicates that the percentage of European tourists represents about 30%, and less than the total number of arrivals on the Tunisian tourist destination. In turn, the director of the Tunisian University of Travel and Tourism Agencies, Omar Riahi, explained that the travel agencies were negatively affected and lost a lot of money with the new Corona virus, as many flights to Italy, Europe and Saudi Arabia were canceled due to the interruption of airports and flights worldwide.

 

 

TOURISM IN TUNISIA

 

  • The number of tourists to Tunisia in 2019 reached 9.4 million, according to local media.
  • Tourism revenue reached more than 5.5 billion Tunisian dinars (1.95 billion dollars) last year.
  • The tourism sector constitutes about 8% of the gross domestic product, and it is the largest sector that provides job opportunities in the country after the agricultural sector.
  • European tourists account for 29.6% of the total number of arrivals on Tunisian tourist destinations.
  • In 2019, Tunisia attracted about 124,000 Italian tourists and more than 890,000 French tourists, while the number of Chinese tourists reached about thirty thousand, which is one of the most affected by the Corona epidemic at the present time.
  • As of February, Tunisia attracted around 55 million tourists, an increase of 9.8%.
  • Revenues for this period amounted to 723.4 million Tunisian dinars, an increase of 27.6%, according to Nabiha Busta of the Ministry of Tourism Studies Center.

 

 

 

 

 

 

TURKEY SETTLES IN THE SPRING TOURISM REGIONS

LAKE UZUNGOL IS AN INTERNATIONAL TOURIST DESTINATION AND A FAVORITE DESTINATION FOR TOURISTS IN TURKEY AND THE MIDDLE EAST

 

The scenery of the tourism sector in Turkey is still clouded by the spread of the Corona virus, among data that talk about limited losses incurred by the sector and others indicating that it benefits from the fact that Turkey is one of the few tourist destinations that are still relatively safe from Corona disease. The losses receded in stopping the reception of Chinese tourists, who were canceled thirty thousand hotel reservations in the regions of Cappadocia, Denizli, Nevsehir and Istanbul. There has also been a recent decrease in the number of Turkish Airlines flights to seven airports in Italy, from 119 flights a week to only 52. On the other hand, the data indicate a significant increase in the number of tourists from other countries (other than China and Italy), the most important of which are the Philippines, Pakistan, Germany, Greece and Britain. But this depends on the epidemic being stopped in these countries.

 

 

TOURISM IN TURKEY IN NUMBERS

 

  • The total number of tourists who visited Turkey in 2019 reached about 52 million, an increase of more than 12%, compared to 2018, according to the Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism.
  • Tourism sector revenue reached $ 34.5 billion last year, an increase of 17% over 2018.
  • The tourism sector contributes 12.1% of the Turkish gross product, according to the data of the Turkish Statistical Institute.
  • The number of officially registered employees in the tourism sector is one million, representing 20% ​​of the total number of workers in this sector of five million Turkish, according to statistics of the Middle East Federation of Tourism and Hotels.
  • The number of Chinese tourists who visited Turkey last year reached 426,000.
  • The number of Italian tourists to Turkey reached more than 311 thousand, which is a modest number compared to European tourism, which occupies the first four ranks in the number of arrivals to Turkey during the same year.
  • Thirty thousand hotel reservations for Chinese tourists were canceled due to the Corona virus, mostly in Istanbul, Nevsehir and Denizli.

    Arab and foreign economists expect that the consequences of the closure and home quarantine against the Corona virus on global economies, especially the third world countries, including Jordan, will be severe in view of what the economy was experiencing before this pandemic due to several regional factors and the interruption of export and internal and external travel and the movement locally and globally, including the sector The tourism sector is most affected (Harald James Forum, 2020).

    Despite the authorization of the governments to implement the defense law and strict precautions, most countries are seriously considering resuming the work of important economic sectors, including the tourism sector. And governments tend to reopen economic and tourism activity, to ensure the continuation of the productive sectors, especially small and medium enterprises, which have been severely affected by the closure, and constitute an important part of the economic activity movement.

    As the tourism sector is now completely paralyzed. Despite the efforts of policymakers around the world to mitigate the economic impact of the Corona Virus Pandemic (COVID-19) pandemic, the tourism sector will not be able to start recovery until the medical emergency in the world is controlled and the travel ban decisions are safely lifted. The longer this health crisis lasts, the more difficult it will be for companies to survive and survive, especially small and medium-sized companies that make up a large proportion of the tourism sector, and the number of affected workers will accordingly increase. Archaeological sites, natural reserves and environmental tourism have been damaged as they are part of global tourism, especially in its new concept around the world, especially Jordan, which contains a lot of protected areas and the beautiful green environment that Lost has lost.

    Global and local tourism

    The global economic movement did not stop the wheel of global tourism with the new COVID-19. It became what is known as the Levant, from the Arab Maghreb to Istanbul, passing through Tunisia and Egypt, then Lebanon and Jordan. It is a leading Arab and Islamic tourist destination that were negatively affected by the repercussions of the Corona virus. Thousands of reservations were canceled. Hundreds of flights, jobs and workers have been disrupted, and the list of losses continues to grow day after day.

    Through research and observation of what is happening globally since the outbreak of the COVID-19, the researcher spoke to officials, specialists in the tourism sector, economic experts, social and environmental and to all kinds of societies globally, even Arabic and Islamic societies, the researcher found the huge negative effects on all sectors, including the tourism sector.

    The Corona pandemic left natural reserves alone without visitors, and protected areas and their workers from local communities lost their livelihood, and ecotourism lost its “hateful” luster on the impact of the virus that forced the world to stay in homes.

    Since its outbreak, the Corona virus continues to wreak havoc in the global economy until it has paralyzed it, hindering production, supply and air transport throughout the world, weakening global demand, isolating and placing countries under quarantine, and another under curfew, and afflicting the financial, aviation, transportation and tourism sectors with heavy losses.

    Empty hotels of visitors, canceled trips, closed tourist and economic attractions, Corona virus paralyzes tourism and the global economy is exhausted. From now on, the tourism sector expects billions of dollars in losses, the Arab and Islamic world, America and Europe now, and for three months in the face of the Corona crisis, since the spread of the virus, even in Italy, popular tourist destinations remained empty of people. In Venice and Milan, museums, theaters, and tourist attractions remain closed, and major activities, even Jordan and the Arab and Islamic countries, have been canceled. Even in France, the Louvre remained closed for consecutive days, because workers stopped working for fear of possible infection (Borsa, Akhbiyah & Akhbaria, 2020).

     

    RESEARCH PROBLEM

    COVID-19 had the virus, caused by a new strain of coronavirus (acute coronary virus 2), which had a major impact on tourism and travel behavior than any global epidemic that infects living memory in humans. So, tourism now it is outside of public health has become one of the main public faces of COVID-19 in the international media (Arabiya, 2020). The nature of the tourism system means that tourism contributed to the spread of the disease and witnessed the consequences of the disease on all parts of the tourism value and supply chains. The global spread of the disease and the application of classical controls on the disease have shaped quarantine, low mobility and isolation have a major impact on both international and domestic tourism, along with a range of sector-specific effects, including transportation, travel, reservation, hospitality, restaurants, conferences, events, and tourist attractions, especially in Third world countries, most of which mean huge economic problems, including Jordan (Arabiya, 2020).

     

    Research Questions

    1. Is the outbreak of the COVID-19 virus poses a major and evolving challenge for the tourism sector?
    2. Is the World Tourism Organization is in constant contact with the World Health Organization to ensure a reliable voice that responds to global tourism?
    3. How the World Tourism Organization appeals to the tourism sector and travelers to tackle this challenge wisely and to take proportional measures?
    4. Tourism is currently one of the most affected sectors, and the World Tourism Organization is revising its forecast for 2020, knowing that it is not possible in the current situation to conduct any assessment of the impact of the COVID-19 virus on international tourism?
    5. WHO is currently advising against restrictions on travel or trade with countries experiencing COVID-19 outbreaks?

     

     

    GLOBAL TOURISM SECTOR LOSSES DUE TO CORONA IS THE HIGHEST IN TWENTY YEARS

    The global tourism sector was hit by a major crisis due to the outbreak of the Corona virus (COVID-19) (Jazeera, 2020) which the World Tourism Organization described as “the most severe in the past 20 years, expressing its hope that it will return to recovery after the end of the crisis”.

    The Secretary-General of the World Tourism Organization, Zurab Pololikashvili, said: “Tourism is among the most affected areas of all economic sectors. However, tourism is also united in helping to tackle this massive health emergency, and our first priority while working together to mitigate the impact of the crisis, particularly on employment, and support recovery efforts on a larger scale by creating jobs and advancing economic well-being around the world”.

    He stressed that tourism is one of the regions most affected by all economic sectors in the world. He added, “Millions of jobs inside the sector are at risk of being lost, and about 80% of all tourism businesses are small and medium-sized companies, and this sector was leading the way in providing job opportunities”. The organization presented its statistics on the sector’s losses during the three largest crises that have passed through the sector since 2000 until now, which revealed that tourism revenue losses due to corona will be the highest.

    Corona’s crisis is the biggest and led to the biggest losses for the tourism sector in 20 years, according to World Tourism Organization statistics:

    1. The rate of decline in the year 2001 with the events of September 11 reached -3.1%.
    2. In 2003, when the SARS outbreak spread, tourism sector losses were just -0.4%.
    3. In 2009, with the global financial and economic crisis, losses were -4%.
    4. The World Tourism Organization expects a decrease in the numbers of tourists this year 2020, by -20% to -30% over 2019.
    5. The revenue of the tourism sector will range from $ 300-450 billion, down from 2019.

    Based on what has been presented (tourism is getting sick and not dying) 3 global crises have affected international tourism in the past twenty years ... the terrorist events of September 11. SARS virus in 2003. Economic crisis 2009. And global tourism: The most severe corona.

    Therefore, the researcher found during the investigation process that in the Middle East region, especially the least wealthy Arab countries, the dues of more than 400,000 tourism workers are a hot file in front of the physics and tourist rooms that collect the value of the monthly salaries and establish a plan for crisis management and strict procedures towards those who are arbitrary with their employees and hotels, some of which will give their members Full salary.

    Through the researcher’s briefing on the pages of social media, television stations, magazines and daily newspapers in this regard, it was revealed that there is a state of anxiety that was clearly demonstrated through the pages of social communication and tourism groups that include companies and workers, where there were lengthy discussions about the demands of workers in the sector and the limited capabilities of investors, and the movements of governments, especially Arab ones to support the sector in this regard, especially in the Corona crisis.

     

    CORONA VIRUS THREATENS WORLD TOURISM PARALYSIS

    Corona virus is tightening its grip on global tourism seriously and its future, the situation is everywhere in the world, especially in East Asia, and in Europe the tourism sector is increasingly concerned (Woo, 2020).

    Made for Mind newspaper DW.COM published on its page 14/5/2020 that in Egypt (Egyptian doctors are accused of treason after warning of the collapse of the health sector and accusing the Ministry of Health of mismanaging the crisis and failure to protect medical personnel. The reality denied by the relevant ministry and the extent of the Corona pandemic in Egypt and asking about the fact of the dispute between the Medical Syndicate and the Ministry of Health in Egypt) (UNWTO, 2020).

     

    EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF THE COVID-19 VIRUS OUTBREAK ON INTERNATIONAL TOURISM THE RESEARCHER BY THE FOLLOWING

    The international tourism sector has witnessed continuous growth despite some temporary shocks, which indicates the strength and flexibility of the tourism sector and that it benefits the regions of the world. International tourism did not know the decline until 2003 due to severe acute psychological syndrome (SARS), and during the Iraq war, and in 2009 in the midst of the economic and financial crisis, knowing that it soon returned to a strong recovery in the following years.

    The tourism sector is currently one of the sectors most affected by the outbreak of Coronavirus (COVID 19), and the effects of this have appeared on both supply and demand for travel, especially in China, America, and many European and third world countries through travel restrictions, isolation or Domestic stone.

    These international measures imposed on travel and international tourism, in addition to canceling flights or limiting their frequency, resulted in a significant contraction in the supply of travel services (domestic and international), while the decline in demand continued.

    As the COVID-19 virus has become a new regression hazard in the context of an already weak global economy. Moreover, the COVID-19 outbreak is adding to a situation of some turmoil due to ongoing geopolitical, social and trade tensions, the effects of the UK exit from the European Union, and the imbalance in the performance of the main exporting travel markets.

    By looking at the many tools available to the researcher that the situation is constantly evolving, it is too early to estimate the full impact of COVID-19 virus on international tourism.

    Today, considering the severe acute syndrome scenario (SARS), the size and dynamics of the global travel market, the current travel disruptions, the geographical spread of the COVID-19 virus and its real and sudden economic impact, the World Tourism Organization estimates that the number of international tourists has decreased in 2020 at a global level by It ranges between 1% and 5%, instead of 5% to 7% growth, as expected in early May, 2020. It results in a loss of between $ 40 and $ 60 billion in international visitor spending (international tourism receipts).

    Currently, Asia and the Pacific are the regions worst affected, with a decrease of 12% and 16% in the number of international tourists arriving in 2020, instead of a growth of between 8% and 10% as expected in early May 2012.

    These estimates were read with caution, due to the fluctuation in the development of the outbreak, which may lead to further revisions to the expectations of other researchers. As for the expectations of other regions of the world, it is premature, given that the situation is developing rapidly (UNWTO, 2020).

    The impact of the COVID-19 virus outbreak will undoubtedly be felt throughout the tourism value chain. Small and medium enterprises are expected to be affected in particular and some of these institutions can close their doors if the disease continues to spread more, which requires support and recovery measures for the tourism sector in the most affected countries such as Jordan, Egypt and the Arab Gulf states.

    Global tourism researchers will continue to monitor the impact of the Covid-19 virus on international and domestic tourism and provide the latest data and analysis.

     

    INTERNATIONAL TOURISM - GROWTH AND RESILIENCE

    International tourism has witnessed continuous growth despite some temporary shocks, which indicates the strength and resilience of the tourism sector and that it benefits all regions of the world.

    International tourism did not know the decline until 2003 due to severe acute psychological syndrome (SARS), and during the Iraq war, and in 2009 in the midst of the economic and financial crisis, knowing that it soon returned to a strong recovery in the following years (UNWTO, 2020) (Figure 1).

     

    Figure 1. Inbound international tourism during the years (1995-2019).

    Source: UNWTO

     

    Likewise, the World Tourism Organization, published on 5/3/2020, showed that incoming international tourism in the world (in percentages and subject to change). By informing the researcher and the process of research, investigation and investigation of a number of tourism experts, the proportions are much more than what was stated in their publication (WHO, 2015).

    Depending on the scenario of severe acute psychiatric syndrome, known as SARS, the size and dynamics of the global travel market, current travel disorders and the geographical spread of the COVID-19 after starting in China and spread to a number of countries in the world and through its potential economic impact, the World Tourism Organization estimates that the number of international tourists It may decrease in 2020 at the global level by between 1% and 3%, instead of growth between 3% and 4%, as expected in early January and May, 2020 more specifically through many media programs issued in this regard (Figure 2).

     

    Figure 2. Revised 2020 forecast - Inbound international tourism, World (million).

    Source: UNWTO

     

    The World Tourism Organization estimates that the number of international tourists may decrease in 2020 around the world by 1% to 3%, rather than growth between 3% and 4%, as expected in early January (Figure 3).

     

    Figure 3. Growth estimate of number of international tourists in 2020.

    Source: UNWTO

     

     

    China as a global market source whose exports of goods in the Corona pandemic have decreased (Figure 3).

    In 2003, China was the seventh largest economy in the world, accounting for 4% of global GDP. Today it is the second largest company and accounts for 16% of the global economy.

    In 2003, China represented 3% of total spending on international tourism, and today it represents 20%.

    According to what has been exposed, and through global tourism forecasts, for sector losses during 2020 due to Corona, the researcher believes that we can summarize them in a number of key points as follows:

    Nowadays, the tourism sector is currently considered one of the sectors most affected by the outbreak of the Coronavirus virus (COVID-19), and its negative impact on both supply and demand for travel around the world.

    1. International tourism may decrease by 1% to 3% during the current year 2020 in the world.
    2. This decrease resulted in a loss estimated at between 30 to 50 billion USD.
    3. These figures came in comparison to the SARS scenario that spread in 2002/2003 and its impact.
    4. The Asia-Pacific region is the region worst affected by the decrease in the number of tourists by 9% to 12% in 2020 compared to an expected growth from 5% to 6% in early January.
    5. The biggest impact will be on small and medium-sized companies, which may be subject to bankruptcy and potential closure.
    6. The current phase is similar to the year 2003 during the SARS virus epidemic, the Iraq war in 1991, the eleventh of September 2001, the global economic and financial crisis in 2009 and the wars in Syria, Yemen and Libya that led to a sharp decline in tourism to the Middle East and Africa and its impact on Jordan Significantly and with the rise of airline tickets and marine tourism to increase insurance policies.
    7. The most prominent high impact markets are China and the manufacturing countries in Europe and America, the world leader in spending, as well as on other major Asian markets and European destinations such as Italy, Germany, Britain and France.
    8. Restrictions imposed on travel, home quarantine, closure of markets and tourism areas, which have become negative due to the global corona pandemic and the cancellation or reduction of flights led to a significant decrease in the provision of travel services (domestic and international).

     

    QUESTIONS WERE SUBMITTED TO SOME OF THE SPECIALISTS IN THE TOURISM FIELDIS TOURISM AFFECTED IN THE ARAB COUNTRIES AND JORDAN IN PARTICULAR WITH “CORONA VIRUS”?

     

    The majority of the interrogators emphasized that since the spread of the Corona virus in the world, especially in the Arab world, the economies of the countries it is affected have been affected until it has caused major impacts on the global and local economy, and that the impact of the virus after the World Health Organization declared that Corona is a "global epidemic" and "pandemic", what It caused the striking of the tourism and oil market, the wheel of production and the rates of its production, and the international and local stock exchanges, in addition to many sectors involved in the national product of each country, including trade, industry, agriculture and tourism.

    The tourism sector is one of the most important fields for many countries in the world that depend on it for its annual GDP, especially since it contributes to more than 12% of the total global output annually. (COVID-19 tourism has been severely affected, which led to general neglect of tourist areas due to quarantine and the complete closure of state institutions.

    The virus has dealt a severe blow to the tourism sector and all related branches and departments, such as tourist companies, airlines, hotels, restaurants, and country revenues from tourist visas, airports, ports, museums, tourist places, tax rates, and others.

     

     

    ARE COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD AFFECTED BY THE CORONA VIRUS?

     

    Corona’s outbreak hit the tourism sector in countries such as Italy, Spain, France, the United States of America and Turkey, in addition to China, the source of the first virus, as well as with South Korea, Japan, Singapore, Thailand and Malaysia.

    It was expected that the number of tourists globally will decrease by 1% to 3% during the current year globally. Until now, the Asia Pacific region is the worst affected by the decrease in the number of tourists by 9% to 12% in the first quarter of 2020, compared to the expected growth from 5% to 6% in early January.

    An official from the Manila-based Asian Development Bank said the outbreak of the Coruna virus would reduce economic growth in Asia and around the world this year. He added, “The spread of the virus may reduce global gross output between 0.1 and 0.4%, with financial losses expected to reach between 77 and 347 billion dollars”. And it has been emphasized that airlines have suffered the most losses since the disease began, but hotel establishments such as “Hyatt” for hotels and tour operators such as “Carnival” and travel companies such as “TUI” have also suffered losses, according to a Reuters report. He added, “In February, the number of Chinese airlines users decreased by 84.5%, which indicates the extent of the fatal economic impact on this country where the virus was born, especially in light of the presence of a population of 1.4 billion people”.

    Does the people of the global tourism market stagnation threaten trillions?

    An international specialist from Istanbul headquarters) Bulut Baghi, President of the World Tourism Forum Institute in Turkey (said during an interview in this regard through Skype:

    The tourism and hospitality industry around the world have fallen to its lowest historical levels, driven by the spread of the Coruna virus around the world and global restrictions on cross-border trips.

    He added that the losses of the global tourism market may reach one trillion dollars this year due to the measures taken to curb the spread of the “Corona emerging” virus. “Baghi” added during the article, that the current annual volume of the global tourism market is 1.7 trillion dollars.

    From what was concluded, the researcher believes that tourism losses cannot stop at the value of one trillion dollars only, but that global tourism losses may affect employment in the sector, through the loss of 50 million jobs related to the sector.

    The researcher believes that the tourism process stopped and almost died through the most recent data he received from international organizations, research conducted by the World Tourism Forum Institute, readings and access to what was published in the unread and readable means.

    Baggi said that the new Corona virus is spreading very quickly, due to the globalization situation in the world and the continuous travel movement, adding: “70 percent of the tourism sector has already stopped”.

    He added: “The relevant institutions in Turkey, especially the Ministry of Health, have taken important measures from day one, in order to prevent the spread of the new Corona virus”.

    He continued: “However, some countries failed to take the necessary measures to limit the spread of the virus, especially the countries of the European Union, which led to things getting out of control, because of taking the necessary measures, but it was too late”.

    The researcher believes that the tourism sector is one of the sectors that was directly affected by the spread of the new Corona virus, which was first seen in China and spread from it to all parts of the continents and almost all countries reached (188 countries).

     As the annual size of the global tourism market is 1.7 trillion dollars ... We meet constantly with international tourist investors, hotel groups and airlines, and according to the research that was found, the economic losses suffered by the global tourism sector so far amount to 600 billion dollars.

    In turn, international companies operating on the system of payment by credit cards, such as American Express, Visa and MasterCard, revealed that the damage caused by the emerging. Corona virus to the global economy amounted to between 28-29 trillion dollars. And that the economic losses suffered by the global tourism sector due to the corona virus, are horrific, and that they could negatively affect other sectors related to tourism, which may exacerbate the economic losses.

     

    WILL THE RECOVERY BE EASY ON THE GLOBAL MARKET?

     

    By looking at a number of related articles, the researcher believes that airlines around the world are around the corner from serious crises, as some companies seek to eliminate the cash shortage, while other companies have suspended the agreements that were announced earlier. Whereas, the International Air Transport Association “IATA”, in a statement, expected that the losses of airlines around the world will reach 113 billion dollars, as one of the consequences of the “Corona” outbreak. And the association considered that the survival of the virus without expanding from its current level geographically, indicates losses of up to 63 billion, and the number climbs to a maximum of 113 billion in the event that it takes a wider range towards additional countries in Europe and the Americas.

    The researcher believes that even if the epidemic is under control, the recovery of tourism will not be easy since the tourism workers and investors in the sector should focus on making double efforts during the last quarter of 2020.

     

    Evaluating the impact of the COVID-19 virus outbreak on international tourism through a survey of a number of tourism professionals in Jordan and some other nationalities residing on the land of Jordan

     

    A number of tourism experts confirmed in a special interview during the research process of the researcher that the Corona virus will definitely affect the tourism sector in Jordan as is the case on the rest of the world, whether in the short, medium or perhaps long term. According to sector experts, they explained that what has become evident on the reservation numbers for the upcoming seasons and the size of the cancellations for the current season, which requires collective and creative thinking and the best interests of the group and the country over the personal interest, which also requires reconsidering the restricted nationalities whose countries have not recorded any infections with this virus so far (Al-Ghad, 2020).

    Through an investigation of Al-Jazeera Net in numbers about the impact of the Corona virus on tourism and aviation in the region: experts and stakeholders in the Jordanian tourism sector estimated the cancellation of tourist reservations by more than 30% during the current month of March, in addition to stopping demand for tourism programs. As these experts assert that the danger lies in stopping future reservations, after the Kingdom registered tourist reservations during the months of this year and the beginning of next year 2021. The head of the Jordanian Tourism Agents Association, Muhammad Samih, on 6/5/2020 through the Jordanian media, I see the Kingdom and the correspondents of some channels LCN, Al-Jazeera and Al-Arabiya described the tourism situation in Jordan during the past and current months as "catastrophic", and said that we are heading into a state of bankruptcy for major airlines, tourist offices, hotels, tourist transport, etc., and termination of work contracts for company employees, travel agencies, etc., as well as> for you That leads to paralysis and bankruptcy.

     

     

    AVAILABLE FIGURES FOR THE RESEARCHER INDICATE THE FOLLOWING: JORDAN

     

    • Jordan welcomed more than 5.3 million tourists in 2019, compared to 4.9 million visitors in 2018.
    • Tourism revenue in Jordan increased in 2019 to 4.11 billion dinars (5.8 billion dollars), according to the Central Bank of Jordan.
    • The number of workers in tourist facilities is 53 thousand workers.
    • 35 thousand tourists from China visited the Kingdom last year, and the Ministry of Tourism's plan was to increase the number by 15-20% during the current year 2020.
    • The number of tourists from Italy in 2019 reached more than 89 thousand tourists, and the Ministry of Tourism was aiming to increase the number to reach 120 thousand in the current year.
    • The number of tourists for the months of March and April.

     

     

    LEBANON FACES TWO CRISES AT THE SAME TIME

     

    In Lebanon, there are no accurate figures yet as to the impact of the tourism and aviation sectors on the spread of the Corona virus, according to workers and experts. Experts attributed this to the fact that the emergence of the virus coincided with the severe financial and economic crisis hitting the country, which had the greatest impact on the decline in tourism and travel in the country. According to the head of the Syndicate of Travel and Tourism Owners Syndicate in Lebanon, Jean Abboud, many flights were canceled to and from Beirut, where a decrease in the number of flights through Harery Hariri International Airport, back and forth from 130 flights per day before the financial and economic crisis and the spread of the Corona virus, was recorded to nearly Thirty trips now. The number of passengers has decreased from 13,000 per day to between 5-6 thousand passengers, as sales of travel and tourism companies decreased monthly from about sixty million dollars before the financial crisis and the spread of the Corona virus to 18 million dollars in February. Also, many reservations were canceled in June and July, and all aviation offices began to pay half the salary to their employees, along with the layoffs of a number of their employees.

     

     

    THE VOLUME OF TOURISM TO LEBANON IN NUMBERS

     

    - Tourism revenue has reached some $ 9.5 billion in some years, but in 2019 it is believed to have reached about $ 3.5 billion.

    -The contribution of the tourism sector to GDP last year was estimated at 8%.

    -Tourism sector losses are estimated at 700 million dollars last year.

    -The number of workers in the officially registered tourism sector is estimated at 150,000, but the workers, directly or indirectly, amount to more than four hundred thousand.

    -The number of Chinese visitors to Lebanon was very small and did not exceed 20,000 last year.

    -According to Middle East Airlines (Lebanese Airlines), the suspension of the company's flights to a number of Arab countries due to Corona costs the company about ninety thousand dollars per day, as well as the suspension of flights to Italy and some European countries cost about twenty thousand dollars per day.

    -The sector contributes to providing job opportunities for about 25% of the Lebanese workforce, but in recent years it has retreated to 19%.

    -The number of approved travel companies in Lebanon is 213.

    -During the first eight months of 2019, Lebanon received more than one million and four hundred thousand tourists, according to the former Lebanese Minister of Tourism Awadis Kidanian.

     

     

     

     

    TOURISM IN EGYPT

     

    Head of the Chamber of Tourism Companies Hossam Al-Shaer - in press statements - that there is a decrease of 70-80% in the new reservations for the Egyptian destinations during this period, compared to the same period last year, due to the Corona virus, and denied any cancellation in the current reservations. According to the former member of the Chamber of Tourism in Egypt, Hassan Abdel Salam, and a member of the hotel room Sami Suleiman, there is no layoffs at this time. According to the statements of previous speakers, the future of the sector can only be determined after the full effects of the Corona virus on the world economy appear, but they are optimistic about the future. In order to face any repercussions of the virus, the Egyptian government formed a joint committee from the health and tourism sectors to meet permanently to discuss the developments of impacts, at a time when efforts to stimulate tourism abroad and attempts to bring new tourists continue, in addition to circulating instructions on the environment, health and prevention among workers in tourist facilities.

     

     

    THE SIZE OF TOURISM TO EGYPT IN EGYPT NUMBERS

     

    • Inbound tourism contributes 15% of the country's GDP.
    • About three million Egyptians are associated with the tourism activity.
    • More than three hundred thousand people work in the tourism sector directly, according to official data.
    • The share of the private sector reached about 98% of tourism activity.
    • The number of tourists to Egypt reached more than 12 million tourists, according to official figures from last year, and it was expected to increase the number by 30%, according to official data.
    • The tourism sector generated revenues of about $ 12.6 billion in the 2018-2019 fiscal year.

     

     

    TOURISM IN MOROCCO

     

    According to officials responsible for the tourism sector, that it raises corona is limited and there are no accurate statistics on the size of cancellations of reservations due to the Corona virus, in contrast, officials in the tourism sector and hotels talk about delays. But local media have reported more than ten thousand cancellations in Marrakesh, one of the most important tourist destinations in Morocco. The Royal Air Force also suspended its flights - temporarily - from last Sunday, March 8, until next July, to and from the cities of Milan and Venice, following the decision of the Italian authorities to impose quarantine on them. Tourism professionals and hoteliers formed a crisis cell to follow up and take precautionary measures.

    • Tourism in numbers for the country of Morocco
    • Tourism in Morocco constitutes 7% of the gross domestic product.
    • The tourism sector provides 750 thousand jobs, which represents about 5% of the total economic employment rate. The number of foreign tourists at the end of 2019 was about 13 million, an increase of 5.2%, compared to 2018.
    • The tourism sector achieved revenues of 78.6 billion dirhams ($ 8.11 billion) in 2019, up 7.7% from 2018.

     

    GREEN TUNISIA AND TRAVEL AGENCY LOSSES

     

    Tunisia (Green Tunisia) and travel agency losses. There is a decline in most European tourism markets against the background of the spread of the Corona virus and its disruption and paralysis in the air and maritime transport sectors. Tunisia, like most global tourist destinations, according to observers, will be negatively affected by this health crisis, and may lead to a decrease in the number of arrivals to it by about 70% until the end of next September, especially in light of the influx of tourists from neighboring countries during the holy month of Ramadan, and it will continue for another notice. The university professor specialized in tourism matters, Moez Qassem - in an interview on Skype Network during my talk with him on 16 - FS / 2020 indicates that the percentage of European tourists represents about 30%, and less than the total number of arrivals on the Tunisian tourist destination. In turn, the director of the Tunisian University of Travel and Tourism Agencies, Omar Riahi, explained that the travel agencies were negatively affected and lost a lot of money with the new Corona virus, as many flights to Italy, Europe and Saudi Arabia were canceled due to the interruption of airports and flights worldwide.

     

     

    TOURISM IN TUNISIA

     

    • The number of tourists to Tunisia in 2019 reached 9.4 million, according to local media.
    • Tourism revenue reached more than 5.5 billion Tunisian dinars (1.95 billion dollars) last year.
    • The tourism sector constitutes about 8% of the gross domestic product, and it is the largest sector that provides job opportunities in the country after the agricultural sector.
    • European tourists account for 29.6% of the total number of arrivals on Tunisian tourist destinations.
    • In 2019, Tunisia attracted about 124,000 Italian tourists and more than 890,000 French tourists, while the number of Chinese tourists reached about thirty thousand, which is one of the most affected by the Corona epidemic at the present time.
    • As of February, Tunisia attracted around 55 million tourists, an increase of 9.8%.
    • Revenues for this period amounted to 723.4 million Tunisian dinars, an increase of 27.6%, according to Nabiha Busta of the Ministry of Tourism Studies Center.

     

     

     

     

     

     

    TURKEY SETTLES IN THE SPRING TOURISM REGIONS

    LAKE UZUNGOL IS AN INTERNATIONAL TOURIST DESTINATION AND A FAVORITE DESTINATION FOR TOURISTS IN TURKEY AND THE MIDDLE EAST

     

    The scenery of the tourism sector in Turkey is still clouded by the spread of the Corona virus, among data that talk about limited losses incurred by the sector and others indicating that it benefits from the fact that Turkey is one of the few tourist destinations that are still relatively safe from Corona disease. The losses receded in stopping the reception of Chinese tourists, who were canceled thirty thousand hotel reservations in the regions of Cappadocia, Denizli, Nevsehir and Istanbul. There has also been a recent decrease in the number of Turkish Airlines flights to seven airports in Italy, from 119 flights a week to only 52. On the other hand, the data indicate a significant increase in the number of tourists from other countries (other than China and Italy), the most important of which are the Philippines, Pakistan, Germany, Greece and Britain. But this depends on the epidemic being stopped in these countries.

     

     

    TOURISM IN TURKEY IN NUMBERS

     

    • The total number of tourists who visited Turkey in 2019 reached about 52 million, an increase of more than 12%, compared to 2018, according to the Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism.
    • Tourism sector revenue reached $ 34.5 billion last year, an increase of 17% over 2018.
    • The tourism sector contributes 12.1% of the Turkish gross product, according to the data of the Turkish Statistical Institute.
    • The number of officially registered employees in the tourism sector is one million, representing 20% ​​of the total number of workers in this sector of five million Turkish, according to statistics of the Middle East Federation of Tourism and Hotels.
    • The number of Chinese tourists who visited Turkey last year reached 426,000.
    • The number of Italian tourists to Turkey reached more than 311 thousand, which is a modest number compared to European tourism, which occupies the first four ranks in the number of arrivals to Turkey during the same year.
    • Thirty thousand hotel reservations for Chinese tourists were canceled due to the Corona virus, mostly in Istanbul, Nevsehir and Denizli.
Arab and foreign economists expect that the consequences of the closure and home quarantine against the Corona virus on global economies, especially the third world countries, including Jordan, will be severe in view of what the economy was experiencing before this pandemic due to several regional factors and the interruption of export and internal and external travel and the movement locally and globally, including the sector The tourism sector is most affected (Harald James Forum, 2020).
Despite the authorization of the governments to implement the defense law and strict precautions, most countries are seriously considering resuming the work of important economic sectors, including the tourism sector. And governments tend to reopen economic and tourism activity, to ensure the continuation of the productive sectors, especially small and medium enterprises, which have been severely affected by the closure, and constitute an important part of the economic activity movement.
As the tourism sector is now completely paralyzed. Despite the efforts of policymakers around the world to mitigate the economic impact of the Corona Virus Pandemic (COVID-19) pandemic, the tourism sector will not be able to start recovery until the medical emergency in the world is controlled and the travel ban decisions are safely lifted. The longer this health crisis lasts, the more difficult it will be for companies to survive and survive, especially small and medium-sized companies that make up a large proportion of the tourism sector, and the number of affected workers will accordingly increase. Archaeological sites, natural reserves and environmental tourism have been damaged as they are part of global tourism, especially in its new concept around the world, especially Jordan, which contains a lot of protected areas and the beautiful green environment that Lost has lost.
Global and local tourism
The global economic movement did not stop the wheel of global tourism with the new COVID-19. It became what is known as the Levant, from the Arab Maghreb to Istanbul, passing through Tunisia and Egypt, then Lebanon and Jordan. It is a leading Arab and Islamic tourist destination that were negatively affected by the repercussions of the Corona virus. Thousands of reservations were canceled. Hundreds of flights, jobs and workers have been disrupted, and the list of losses continues to grow day after day.
Through research and observation of what is happening globally since the outbreak of the COVID-19, the researcher spoke to officials, specialists in the tourism sector, economic experts, social and environmental and to all kinds of societies globally, even Arabic and Islamic societies, the researcher found the huge negative effects on all sectors, including the tourism sector.
The Corona pandemic left natural reserves alone without visitors, and protected areas and their workers from local communities lost their livelihood, and ecotourism lost its “hateful” luster on the impact of the virus that forced the world to stay in homes.
Since its outbreak, the Corona virus continues to wreak havoc in the global economy until it has paralyzed it, hindering production, supply and air transport throughout the world, weakening global demand, isolating and placing countries under quarantine, and another under curfew, and afflicting the financial, aviation, transportation and tourism sectors with heavy losses.
Empty hotels of visitors, canceled trips, closed tourist and economic attractions, Corona virus paralyzes tourism and the global economy is exhausted. From now on, the tourism sector expects billions of dollars in losses, the Arab and Islamic world, America and Europe now, and for three months in the face of the Corona crisis, since the spread of the virus, even in Italy, popular tourist destinations remained empty of people. In Venice and Milan, museums, theaters, and tourist attractions remain closed, and major activities, even Jordan and the Arab and Islamic countries, have been canceled. Even in France, the Louvre remained closed for consecutive days, because workers stopped working for fear of possible infection (Borsa, Akhbiyah & Akhbaria, 2020).
 
RESEARCH PROBLEM
COVID-19 had the virus, caused by a new strain of coronavirus (acute coronary virus 2), which had a major impact on tourism and travel behavior than any global epidemic that infects living memory in humans. So, tourism now it is outside of public health has become one of the main public faces of COVID-19 in the international media (Arabiya, 2020). The nature of the tourism system means that tourism contributed to the spread of the disease and witnessed the consequences of the disease on all parts of the tourism value and supply chains. The global spread of the disease and the application of classical controls on the disease have shaped quarantine, low mobility and isolation have a major impact on both international and domestic tourism, along with a range of sector-specific effects, including transportation, travel, reservation, hospitality, restaurants, conferences, events, and tourist attractions, especially in Third world countries, most of which mean huge economic problems, including Jordan (Arabiya, 2020).
 
Research Questions
  1. Is the outbreak of the COVID-19 virus poses a major and evolving challenge for the tourism sector?
  2. Is the World Tourism Organization is in constant contact with the World Health Organization to ensure a reliable voice that responds to global tourism?
  3. How the World Tourism Organization appeals to the tourism sector and travelers to tackle this challenge wisely and to take proportional measures?
  4. Tourism is currently one of the most affected sectors, and the World Tourism Organization is revising its forecast for 2020, knowing that it is not possible in the current situation to conduct any assessment of the impact of the COVID-19 virus on international tourism?
  5. WHO is currently advising against restrictions on travel or trade with countries experiencing COVID-19 outbreaks?
 GLOBAL TOURISM SECTOR LOSSES DUE TO CORONA IS THE HIGHEST IN TWENTY YEARS
The global tourism sector was hit by a major crisis due to the outbreak of the Corona virus (COVID-19) (Jazeera, 2020) which the World Tourism Organization described as “the most severe in the past 20 years, expressing its hope that it will return to recovery after the end of the crisis”.
The Secretary-General of the World Tourism Organization, Zurab Pololikashvili, said: “Tourism is among the most affected areas of all economic sectors. However, tourism is also united in helping to tackle this massive health emergency, and our first priority while working together to mitigate the impact of the crisis, particularly on employment, and support recovery efforts on a larger scale by creating jobs and advancing economic well-being around the world”.
He stressed that tourism is one of the regions most affected by all economic sectors in the world. He added, “Millions of jobs inside the sector are at risk of being lost, and about 80% of all tourism businesses are small and medium-sized companies, and this sector was leading the way in providing job opportunities”. The organization presented its statistics on the sector’s losses during the three largest crises that have passed through the sector since 2000 until now, which revealed that tourism revenue losses due to corona will be the highest.
Corona’s crisis is the biggest and led to the biggest losses for the tourism sector in 20 years, according to World Tourism Organization statistics:
  1. The rate of decline in the year 2001 with the events of September 11 reached -3.1%.
  2. In 2003, when the SARS outbreak spread, tourism sector losses were just -0.4%.
  3. In 2009, with the global financial and economic crisis, losses were -4%.
  4. The World Tourism Organization expects a decrease in the numbers of tourists this year 2020, by -20% to -30% over 2019.
  5. The revenue of the tourism sector will range from $ 300-450 billion, down from 2019.
Based on what has been presented (tourism is getting sick and not dying) 3 global crises have affected international tourism in the past twenty years ... the terrorist events of September 11. SARS virus in 2003. Economic crisis 2009. And global tourism: The most severe corona.
Therefore, the researcher found during the investigation process that in the Middle East region, especially the least wealthy Arab countries, the dues of more than 400,000 tourism workers are a hot file in front of the physics and tourist rooms that collect the value of the monthly salaries and establish a plan for crisis management and strict procedures towards those who are arbitrary with their employees and hotels, some of which will give their members Full salary.
Through the researcher’s briefing on the pages of social media, television stations, magazines and daily newspapers in this regard, it was revealed that there is a state of anxiety that was clearly demonstrated through the pages of social communication and tourism groups that include companies and workers, where there were lengthy discussions about the demands of workers in the sector and the limited capabilities of investors, and the movements of governments, especially Arab ones to support the sector in this regard, especially in the Corona crisis.
 
CORONA VIRUS THREATENS WORLD TOURISM PARALYSIS
Corona virus is tightening its grip on global tourism seriously and its future, the situation is everywhere in the world, especially in East Asia, and in Europe the tourism sector is increasingly concerned (Woo, 2020).
Made for Mind newspaper DW.COM published on its page 14/5/2020 that in Egypt (Egyptian doctors are accused of treason after warning of the collapse of the health sector and accusing the Ministry of Health of mismanaging the crisis and failure to protect medical personnel. The reality denied by the relevant ministry and the extent of the Corona pandemic in Egypt and asking about the fact of the dispute between the Medical Syndicate and the Ministry of Health in Egypt) (UNWTO, 2020).
 
EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF THE COVID-19 VIRUS OUTBREAK ON INTERNATIONAL TOURISM THE RESEARCHER BY THE FOLLOWING
The international tourism sector has witnessed continuous growth despite some temporary shocks, which indicates the strength and flexibility of the tourism sector and that it benefits the regions of the world. International tourism did not know the decline until 2003 due to severe acute psychological syndrome (SARS), and during the Iraq war, and in 2009 in the midst of the economic and financial crisis, knowing that it soon returned to a strong recovery in the following years.
The tourism sector is currently one of the sectors most affected by the outbreak of Coronavirus (COVID 19), and the effects of this have appeared on both supply and demand for travel, especially in China, America, and many European and third world countries through travel restrictions, isolation or Domestic stone.
These international measures imposed on travel and international tourism, in addition to canceling flights or limiting their frequency, resulted in a significant contraction in the supply of travel services (domestic and international), while the decline in demand continued.
As the COVID-19 virus has become a new regression hazard in the context of an already weak global economy. Moreover, the COVID-19 outbreak is adding to a situation of some turmoil due to ongoing geopolitical, social and trade tensions, the effects of the UK exit from the European Union, and the imbalance in the performance of the main exporting travel markets.
By looking at the many tools available to the researcher that the situation is constantly evolving, it is too early to estimate the full impact of COVID-19 virus on international tourism.
Today, considering the severe acute syndrome scenario (SARS), the size and dynamics of the global travel market, the current travel disruptions, the geographical spread of the COVID-19 virus and its real and sudden economic impact, the World Tourism Organization estimates that the number of international tourists has decreased in 2020 at a global level by It ranges between 1% and 5%, instead of 5% to 7% growth, as expected in early May, 2020. It results in a loss of between $ 40 and $ 60 billion in international visitor spending (international tourism receipts).
Currently, Asia and the Pacific are the regions worst affected, with a decrease of 12% and 16% in the number of international tourists arriving in 2020, instead of a growth of between 8% and 10% as expected in early May 2012.
These estimates were read with caution, due to the fluctuation in the development of the outbreak, which may lead to further revisions to the expectations of other researchers. As for the expectations of other regions of the world, it is premature, given that the situation is developing rapidly (UNWTO, 2020).
The impact of the COVID-19 virus outbreak will undoubtedly be felt throughout the tourism value chain. Small and medium enterprises are expected to be affected in particular and some of these institutions can close their doors if the disease continues to spread more, which requires support and recovery measures for the tourism sector in the most affected countries such as Jordan, Egypt and the Arab Gulf states.
Global tourism researchers will continue to monitor the impact of the Covid-19 virus on international and domestic tourism and provide the latest data and analysis.
 
INTERNATIONAL TOURISM - GROWTH AND RESILIENCE
International tourism has witnessed continuous growth despite some temporary shocks, which indicates the strength and resilience of the tourism sector and that it benefits all regions of the world.
International tourism did not know the decline until 2003 due to severe acute psychological syndrome (SARS), and during the Iraq war, and in 2009 in the midst of the economic and financial crisis, knowing that it soon returned to a strong recovery in the following years (UNWTO, 2020) (Figure 1).

 Likewise, the World Tourism Organization, published on 5/3/2020, showed that incoming international tourism in the world (in percentages and subject to change). By informing the researcher and the process of research, investigation and investigation of a number of tourism experts, the proportions are much more than what was stated in their publication (WHO, 2015).
Depending on the scenario of severe acute psychiatric syndrome, known as SARS, the size and dynamics of the global travel market, current travel disorders and the geographical spread of the COVID-19 after starting in China and spread to a number of countries in the world and through its potential economic impact, the World Tourism Organization estimates that the number of international tourists It may decrease in 2020 at the global level by between 1% and 3%, instead of growth between 3% and 4%, as expected in early January and May, 2020 more specifically through many media programs issued in this regard (Figure 2).

The World Tourism Organization estimates that the number of international tourists may decrease in 2020 around the world by 1% to 3%, rather than growth between 3% and 4%, as expected in early January (Figure 3).

 China as a global market source whose exports of goods in the Corona pandemic have decreased (Figure 3).
In 2003, China was the seventh largest economy in the world, accounting for 4% of global GDP. Today it is the second largest company and accounts for 16% of the global economy.
In 2003, China represented 3% of total spending on international tourism, and today it represents 20%.
According to what has been exposed, and through global tourism forecasts, for sector losses during 2020 due to Corona, the researcher believes that we can summarize them in a number of key points as follows:
Nowadays, the tourism sector is currently considered one of the sectors most affected by the outbreak of the Coronavirus virus (COVID-19), and its negative impact on both supply and demand for travel around the world.
  1. International tourism may decrease by 1% to 3% during the current year 2020 in the world.
  2. This decrease resulted in a loss estimated at between 30 to 50 billion USD.
  3. These figures came in comparison to the SARS scenario that spread in 2002/2003 and its impact.
  4. The Asia-Pacific region is the region worst affected by the decrease in the number of tourists by 9% to 12% in 2020 compared to an expected growth from 5% to 6% in early January.
  5. The biggest impact will be on small and medium-sized companies, which may be subject to bankruptcy and potential closure.
  6. The current phase is similar to the year 2003 during the SARS virus epidemic, the Iraq war in 1991, the eleventh of September 2001, the global economic and financial crisis in 2009 and the wars in Syria, Yemen and Libya that led to a sharp decline in tourism to the Middle East and Africa and its impact on Jordan Significantly and with the rise of airline tickets and marine tourism to increase insurance policies.
  7. The most prominent high impact markets are China and the manufacturing countries in Europe and America, the world leader in spending, as well as on other major Asian markets and European destinations such as Italy, Germany, Britain and France.
  8. Restrictions imposed on travel, home quarantine, closure of markets and tourism areas, which have become negative due to the global corona pandemic and the cancellation or reduction of flights led to a significant decrease in the provision of travel services (domestic and international).
 
QUESTIONS WERE SUBMITTED TO SOME OF THE SPECIALISTS IN THE TOURISM FIELDIS TOURISM AFFECTED IN THE ARAB COUNTRIES AND JORDAN IN PARTICULAR WITH “CORONA VIRUS”?
 
The majority of the interrogators emphasized that since the spread of the Corona virus in the world, especially in the Arab world, the economies of the countries it is affected have been affected until it has caused major impacts on the global and local economy, and that the impact of the virus after the World Health Organization declared that Corona is a "global epidemic" and "pandemic", what It caused the striking of the tourism and oil market, the wheel of production and the rates of its production, and the international and local stock exchanges, in addition to many sectors involved in the national product of each country, including trade, industry, agriculture and tourism.
The tourism sector is one of the most important fields for many countries in the world that depend on it for its annual GDP, especially since it contributes to more than 12% of the total global output annually. (COVID-19 tourism has been severely affected, which led to general neglect of tourist areas due to quarantine and the complete closure of state institutions.
The virus has dealt a severe blow to the tourism sector and all related branches and departments, such as tourist companies, airlines, hotels, restaurants, and country revenues from tourist visas, airports, ports, museums, tourist places, tax rates, and others.
 
 
ARE COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD AFFECTED BY THE CORONA VIRUS?
 
Corona’s outbreak hit the tourism sector in countries such as Italy, Spain, France, the United States of America and Turkey, in addition to China, the source of the first virus, as well as with South Korea, Japan, Singapore, Thailand and Malaysia.
It was expected that the number of tourists globally will decrease by 1% to 3% during the current year globally. Until now, the Asia Pacific region is the worst affected by the decrease in the number of tourists by 9% to 12% in the first quarter of 2020, compared to the expected growth from 5% to 6% in early January.
An official from the Manila-based Asian Development Bank said the outbreak of the Coruna virus would reduce economic growth in Asia and around the world this year. He added, “The spread of the virus may reduce global gross output between 0.1 and 0.4%, with financial losses expected to reach between 77 and 347 billion dollars”. And it has been emphasized that airlines have suffered the most losses since the disease began, but hotel establishments such as “Hyatt” for hotels and tour operators such as “Carnival” and travel companies such as “TUI” have also suffered losses, according to a Reuters report. He added, “In February, the number of Chinese airlines users decreased by 84.5%, which indicates the extent of the fatal economic impact on this country where the virus was born, especially in light of the presence of a population of 1.4 billion people”.
Does the people of the global tourism market stagnation threaten trillions?
An international specialist from Istanbul headquarters) Bulut Baghi, President of the World Tourism Forum Institute in Turkey (said during an interview in this regard through Skype:
The tourism and hospitality industry around the world have fallen to its lowest historical levels, driven by the spread of the Coruna virus around the world and global restrictions on cross-border trips.
He added that the losses of the global tourism market may reach one trillion dollars this year due to the measures taken to curb the spread of the “Corona emerging” virus. “Baghi” added during the article, that the current annual volume of the global tourism market is 1.7 trillion dollars.
From what was concluded, the researcher believes that tourism losses cannot stop at the value of one trillion dollars only, but that global tourism losses may affect employment in the sector, through the loss of 50 million jobs related to the sector.
The researcher believes that the tourism process stopped and almost died through the most recent data he received from international organizations, research conducted by the World Tourism Forum Institute, readings and access to what was published in the unread and readable means.
Baggi said that the new Corona virus is spreading very quickly, due to the globalization situation in the world and the continuous travel movement, adding: “70 percent of the tourism sector has already stopped”.
He added: “The relevant institutions in Turkey, especially the Ministry of Health, have taken important measures from day one, in order to prevent the spread of the new Corona virus”.
He continued: “However, some countries failed to take the necessary measures to limit the spread of the virus, especially the countries of the European Union, which led to things getting out of control, because of taking the necessary measures, but it was too late”.
The researcher believes that the tourism sector is one of the sectors that was directly affected by the spread of the new Corona virus, which was first seen in China and spread from it to all parts of the continents and almost all countries reached (188 countries).
 As the annual size of the global tourism market is 1.7 trillion dollars ... We meet constantly with international tourist investors, hotel groups and airlines, and according to the research that was found, the economic losses suffered by the global tourism sector so far amount to 600 billion dollars.
In turn, international companies operating on the system of payment by credit cards, such as American Express, Visa and MasterCard, revealed that the damage caused by the emerging. Corona virus to the global economy amounted to between 28-29 trillion dollars. And that the economic losses suffered by the global tourism sector due to the corona virus, are horrific, and that they could negatively affect other sectors related to tourism, which may exacerbate the economic losses.
 
WILL THE RECOVERY BE EASY ON THE GLOBAL MARKET?
 
By looking at a number of related articles, the researcher believes that airlines around the world are around the corner from serious crises, as some companies seek to eliminate the cash shortage, while other companies have suspended the agreements that were announced earlier. Whereas, the International Air Transport Association “IATA”, in a statement, expected that the losses of airlines around the world will reach 113 billion dollars, as one of the consequences of the “Corona” outbreak. And the association considered that the survival of the virus without expanding from its current level geographically, indicates losses of up to 63 billion, and the number climbs to a maximum of 113 billion in the event that it takes a wider range towards additional countries in Europe and the Americas.
The researcher believes that even if the epidemic is under control, the recovery of tourism will not be easy since the tourism workers and investors in the sector should focus on making double efforts during the last quarter of 2020.
 
Evaluating the impact of the COVID-19 virus outbreak on international tourism through a survey of a number of tourism professionals in Jordan and some other nationalities residing on the land of Jordan
 
A number of tourism experts confirmed in a special interview during the research process of the researcher that the Corona virus will definitely affect the tourism sector in Jordan as is the case on the rest of the world, whether in the short, medium or perhaps long term. According to sector experts, they explained that what has become evident on the reservation numbers for the upcoming seasons and the size of the cancellations for the current season, which requires collective and creative thinking and the best interests of the group and the country over the personal interest, which also requires reconsidering the restricted nationalities whose countries have not recorded any infections with this virus so far (Al-Ghad, 2020).
Through an investigation of Al-Jazeera Net in numbers about the impact of the Corona virus on tourism and aviation in the region: experts and stakeholders in the Jordanian tourism sector estimated the cancellation of tourist reservations by more than 30% during the current month of March, in addition to stopping demand for tourism programs. As these experts assert that the danger lies in stopping future reservations, after the Kingdom registered tourist reservations during the months of this year and the beginning of next year 2021. The head of the Jordanian Tourism Agents Association, Muhammad Samih, on 6/5/2020 through the Jordanian media, I see the Kingdom and the correspondents of some channels LCN, Al-Jazeera and Al-Arabiya described the tourism situation in Jordan during the past and current months as "catastrophic", and said that we are heading into a state of bankruptcy for major airlines, tourist offices, hotels, tourist transport, etc., and termination of work contracts for company employees, travel agencies, etc., as well as> for you That leads to paralysis and bankruptcy.
 
 
AVAILABLE FIGURES FOR THE RESEARCHER INDICATE THE FOLLOWING: JORDAN
 
  • Jordan welcomed more than 5.3 million tourists in 2019, compared to 4.9 million visitors in 2018.
  • Tourism revenue in Jordan increased in 2019 to 4.11 billion dinars (5.8 billion dollars), according to the Central Bank of Jordan.
  • The number of workers in tourist facilities is 53 thousand workers.
  • 35 thousand tourists from China visited the Kingdom last year, and the Ministry of Tourism's plan was to increase the number by 15-20% during the current year 2020.
  • The number of tourists from Italy in 2019 reached more than 89 thousand tourists, and the Ministry of Tourism was aiming to increase the number to reach 120 thousand in the current year.
  • The number of tourists for the months of March and April.
 
 
LEBANON FACES TWO CRISES AT THE SAME TIME
 
In Lebanon, there are no accurate figures yet as to the impact of the tourism and aviation sectors on the spread of the Corona virus, according to workers and experts. Experts attributed this to the fact that the emergence of the virus coincided with the severe financial and economic crisis hitting the country, which had the greatest impact on the decline in tourism and travel in the country. According to the head of the Syndicate of Travel and Tourism Owners Syndicate in Lebanon, Jean Abboud, many flights were canceled to and from Beirut, where a decrease in the number of flights through Harery Hariri International Airport, back and forth from 130 flights per day before the financial and economic crisis and the spread of the Corona virus, was recorded to nearly Thirty trips now. The number of passengers has decreased from 13,000 per day to between 5-6 thousand passengers, as sales of travel and tourism companies decreased monthly from about sixty million dollars before the financial crisis and the spread of the Corona virus to 18 million dollars in February. Also, many reservations were canceled in June and July, and all aviation offices began to pay half the salary to their employees, along with the layoffs of a number of their employees.
 
 
THE VOLUME OF TOURISM TO LEBANON IN NUMBERS
 
- Tourism revenue has reached some $ 9.5 billion in some years, but in 2019 it is believed to have reached about $ 3.5 billion.
-The contribution of the tourism sector to GDP last year was estimated at 8%.
-Tourism sector losses are estimated at 700 million dollars last year.
-The number of workers in the officially registered tourism sector is estimated at 150,000, but the workers, directly or indirectly, amount to more than four hundred thousand.
-The number of Chinese visitors to Lebanon was very small and did not exceed 20,000 last year.
-According to Middle East Airlines (Lebanese Airlines), the suspension of the company's flights to a number of Arab countries due to Corona costs the company about ninety thousand dollars per day, as well as the suspension of flights to Italy and some European countries cost about twenty thousand dollars per day.
-The sector contributes to providing job opportunities for about 25% of the Lebanese workforce, but in recent years it has retreated to 19%.
-The number of approved travel companies in Lebanon is 213.
-During the first eight months of 2019, Lebanon received more than one million and four hundred thousand tourists, according to the former Lebanese Minister of Tourism Awadis Kidanian.
 
 
 
 
TOURISM IN EGYPT
 
Head of the Chamber of Tourism Companies Hossam Al-Shaer - in press statements - that there is a decrease of 70-80% in the new reservations for the Egyptian destinations during this period, compared to the same period last year, due to the Corona virus, and denied any cancellation in the current reservations. According to the former member of the Chamber of Tourism in Egypt, Hassan Abdel Salam, and a member of the hotel room Sami Suleiman, there is no layoffs at this time. According to the statements of previous speakers, the future of the sector can only be determined after the full effects of the Corona virus on the world economy appear, but they are optimistic about the future. In order to face any repercussions of the virus, the Egyptian government formed a joint committee from the health and tourism sectors to meet permanently to discuss the developments of impacts, at a time when efforts to stimulate tourism abroad and attempts to bring new tourists continue, in addition to circulating instructions on the environment, health and prevention among workers in tourist facilities.
 
 
THE SIZE OF TOURISM TO EGYPT IN EGYPT NUMBERS
 
  • Inbound tourism contributes 15% of the country's GDP.
  • About three million Egyptians are associated with the tourism activity.
  • More than three hundred thousand people work in the tourism sector directly, according to official data.
  • The share of the private sector reached about 98% of tourism activity.
  • The number of tourists to Egypt reached more than 12 million tourists, according to official figures from last year, and it was expected to increase the number by 30%, according to official data.
  • The tourism sector generated revenues of about $ 12.6 billion in the 2018-2019 fiscal year.
 
 
TOURISM IN MOROCCO
 
According to officials responsible for the tourism sector, that it raises corona is limited and there are no accurate statistics on the size of cancellations of reservations due to the Corona virus, in contrast, officials in the tourism sector and hotels talk about delays. But local media have reported more than ten thousand cancellations in Marrakesh, one of the most important tourist destinations in Morocco. The Royal Air Force also suspended its flights - temporarily - from last Sunday, March 8, until next July, to and from the cities of Milan and Venice, following the decision of the Italian authorities to impose quarantine on them. Tourism professionals and hoteliers formed a crisis cell to follow up and take precautionary measures.
  • Tourism in numbers for the country of Morocco
  • Tourism in Morocco constitutes 7% of the gross domestic product.
  • The tourism sector provides 750 thousand jobs, which represents about 5% of the total economic employment rate. The number of foreign tourists at the end of 2019 was about 13 million, an increase of 5.2%, compared to 2018.
  • The tourism sector achieved revenues of 78.6 billion dirhams ($ 8.11 billion) in 2019, up 7.7% from 2018.
 
GREEN TUNISIA AND TRAVEL AGENCY LOSSES
 
Tunisia (Green Tunisia) and travel agency losses. There is a decline in most European tourism markets against the background of the spread of the Corona virus and its disruption and paralysis in the air and maritime transport sectors. Tunisia, like most global tourist destinations, according to observers, will be negatively affected by this health crisis, and may lead to a decrease in the number of arrivals to it by about 70% until the end of next September, especially in light of the influx of tourists from neighboring countries during the holy month of Ramadan, and it will continue for another notice. The university professor specialized in tourism matters, Moez Qassem - in an interview on Skype Network during my talk with him on 16 - FS / 2020 indicates that the percentage of European tourists represents about 30%, and less than the total number of arrivals on the Tunisian tourist destination. In turn, the director of the Tunisian University of Travel and Tourism Agencies, Omar Riahi, explained that the travel agencies were negatively affected and lost a lot of money with the new Corona virus, as many flights to Italy, Europe and Saudi Arabia were canceled due to the interruption of airports and flights worldwide.
 
 
TOURISM IN TUNISIA
 
  • The number of tourists to Tunisia in 2019 reached 9.4 million, according to local media.
  • Tourism revenue reached more than 5.5 billion Tunisian dinars (1.95 billion dollars) last year.
  • The tourism sector constitutes about 8% of the gross domestic product, and it is the largest sector that provides job opportunities in the country after the agricultural sector.
  • European tourists account for 29.6% of the total number of arrivals on Tunisian tourist destinations.
  • In 2019, Tunisia attracted about 124,000 Italian tourists and more than 890,000 French tourists, while the number of Chinese tourists reached about thirty thousand, which is one of the most affected by the Corona epidemic at the present time.
  • As of February, Tunisia attracted around 55 million tourists, an increase of 9.8%.
  • Revenues for this period amounted to 723.4 million Tunisian dinars, an increase of 27.6%, according to Nabiha Busta of the Ministry of Tourism Studies Center.
 
 
 
 
 
 
TURKEY SETTLES IN THE SPRING TOURISM REGIONS
LAKE UZUNGOL IS AN INTERNATIONAL TOURIST DESTINATION AND A FAVORITE DESTINATION FOR TOURISTS IN TURKEY AND THE MIDDLE EAST
 
The scenery of the tourism sector in Turkey is still clouded by the spread of the Corona virus, among data that talk about limited losses incurred by the sector and others indicating that it benefits from the fact that Turkey is one of the few tourist destinations that are still relatively safe from Corona disease. The losses receded in stopping the reception of Chinese tourists, who were canceled thirty thousand hotel reservations in the regions of Cappadocia, Denizli, Nevsehir and Istanbul. There has also been a recent decrease in the number of Turkish Airlines flights to seven airports in Italy, from 119 flights a week to only 52. On the other hand, the data indicate a significant increase in the number of tourists from other countries (other than China and Italy), the most important of which are the Philippines, Pakistan, Germany, Greece and Britain. But this depends on the epidemic being stopped in these countries.
 
 
TOURISM IN TURKEY IN NUMBERS
 
  • The total number of tourists who visited Turkey in 2019 reached about 52 million, an increase of more than 12%, compared to 2018, according to the Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism.
  • Tourism sector revenue reached $ 34.5 billion last year, an increase of 17% over 2018.
  • The tourism sector contributes 12.1% of the Turkish gross product, according to the data of the Turkish Statistical Institute.
  • The number of officially registered employees in the tourism sector is one million, representing 20% ​​of the total number of workers in this sector of five million Turkish, according to statistics of the Middle East Federation of Tourism and Hotels.
  • The number of Chinese tourists who visited Turkey last year reached 426,000.
  • The number of Italian tourists to Turkey reached more than 311 thousand, which is a modest number compared to European tourism, which occupies the first four ranks in the number of arrivals to Turkey during the same year.
  • Thirty thousand hotel reservations for Chinese tourists were canceled due to the Corona virus, mostly in Istanbul, Nevsehir and Denizli.
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