Review Article
Biological Databases and Resources for Sequence Analysis
P Kavita, Swarnali and Anamika Singh*
Corresponding Author: Anamika Singh, Department of Botany, Maitreyi College University of Delhi.
Received: December 21, 2022; Revised: January 20, 2023; Accepted: January 23, 2023 Available Online: January 31, 2023
Citation: Kavita P, Swarnali & Singh A. (2023) Biological Databases and Resources for Sequence Analysis. J Pharm Drug Res, 6(2): 704-710.
Copyrights: ©2023 Kavita P, Swarnali & Singh A. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Today is the era of bioinformatics as it uses mathematical algorithms to do DNA sequence alignment to protein structure prediction and drug designing making biological research easier? Biological research has generated lots of databases may it be in form of gene sequences, protein sequences or metabolic pathways across various species. These databases are huge and without bioinformatics one can does not make sense out of it. Bioinformatics provides wide range of tools to deal with all the queries raised in biological research and to find a solution to it. In this article we tried to compile all such freely available tools as well as biological databases, one can have ease to access them and have promising prospects in the area of biological research.

Keywords: Biological databases, Tools for sequence analysis, Protein structure, Bioinformatics, Genomics

Data is increasing day by day in every field of research, but issues start with its arrangement, future utility, easy access for others and prospects of data in research and its applications. Experimental data collection is very important for further and increasing amount of data generated from different genomic projects has made the use of computer databases a necessity which helps in rapid assimilation. By using different computer languages and programs theses data can be further analyzed and used for research. With the remarkable increase in the results produced by different biological research, the amount of information stored in the databases doubling every 14-15 months [1] presents a huge demand for analysis and interpretation of these data [2] Bioinformatics organizes data in a way that allows researchers to access existing information and to submit new entries as they are produced, e.g., the Protein Data Bank for 3D macromolecular structures [3,4]. Its aims to develop tools and resources which helps in the analysis of data [5]. Bioinformatics deals with biological information acquisition, processing, storage, distribution, analysis along with data interpretation that uses different tools and techniques of mathematics, computer science, and biology [1]. With the help of bioinformatics, it is easier for biologists to access data from the internet and other fitting websites and easily discovers the composition of any biological molecules such as nucleic acids and proteins. Bioinformatics is having many different branches (Figure 1) and collections of biological sequences information’s in different biological databases. The two most important biological sequences databases are protein databases and nucleic acid databases, while the structural databases are separate and having 3D structural information’s. The main use of the bioinformatics tools are sequence analysis of DNA and protein with the help of different programs and databases available on the web [2].

Bioinformatics can be used for analysis of gene expression and gene analysis, detection of gene regulation networks, analysis of gene and protein structure and its function [2] Prospection of genomic and transcriptomic data [6]. Bioinformatics constitute a wide range of scientific disciplines and genomic analysis [7].

The two main classes of nucleic acids i.e., DNA and RNA functioning as the carrier of genetic information. As DNA double helical structure is well-known structure with defined function, this information is copied and passed on to the next generation [8]. One of the most important molecules in living cells is deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). The genetic material DNA is a polymer composed of monomeric units known as nucleotides. A nucleotide is made up of a 5-carbon sugar, deoxyribose, a nitrogenous base, and one or more phosphate groups and the phosphate group is acidic, so the name nucleic acid was coined [8].

Similarly, RNA is chemically identical to DNA as it is a chain of similar monomers. RNA is further of three types: mRNA, tRNA and rRNA. RNA molecules are required at all stages of protein synthesis. Messenger RNA transmits the code that specifies the amino acid sequence of the protein; transfer RNA molecules translate the code word for word into protein; and ribosomal RNAs in the ribosome provide part of the machinery to perform the synthesis. Protein structure is known to have a higher degree of conservation compared to sequences due to large variations in sequence within the protein family which can still result in very similar three-dimensional structures [9]. The structure of any protein molecule helps in determining its function [10]. There are many important such findings and, we can analyze it by using different tools used in bioinformatics. Here we are discussing about some most common biological databases and tools used in sequence analysis of protein and nucleic acids.


Bioinformatics is a discipline of biology that grows extensively in last few years. Sequences analysis and identification of new gene, proteins and structure are few important applications of bioinformatics [54]. The most important application is designing of 3D structure of proteins whose structures were not predicted by Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and crystallographic method, due to protein bulky size and other limitations [55]. Genome analysis and sequencing of genome of new varieties is possible only because of extensive computational applications of bioinformatics. In this article we tried to compile most of the resources related to protein and nucleic acids that gives new insight to biological research [56-58].


Bioinformatics is a young discipline, which is widely used for analysis of genome, prediction of protein and gene structures, cell modeling, analysis of molecular pathways etc. As per the requirement of these tasks, various tools like the ones mentioned in this paper have been successfully curated and has made something as complex as genome sequencing much easier to work with. These tools can be used for various tasks like retrieval of structures, prediction and formation of new structures, comparison of different structures etc. that could be helpful for research of a new macromolecule. All these tools are easy to use and free to access.



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