Since the 1970s, in the context of social and moral responsibility, the world has witnessed an increase in environmental awareness at various levels among the most important reasons that pushed this trend which are getting increased rates of
environmental pollution, which included pollution of drinking water and the air we breathe, climate change and global warming due to damage to parts of the ozone layer, increased depletion of natural resources due to irresponsible manufacturing processes, damage to the natural environment as a result of industrial wastes and waste In developed countries, which been affected by developing countries, attacks on green spaces and shrinking, especially in Jordan, for increased use in high-rise buildings, acid rain, damage to the ozone layer and leakage of toxic substances into the atmosphere. Often, the fingers of accusation extended to the irresponsible practices of business organizations represented in the manufacturing and marketing processes as the main causes of these problems. As a result of these global developments, various societies and bodies have emerged in the world calling for preserving the environment to make it a safe place to live for present and future generations. The governments and various official bodies have enacted legislation and taken appropriate measures to preserve the environment and its natural resources.
THE STUDY PROBLEM
In light of these global developments, many business organizations have begun to review their responsibilities. Social and ethical in its marketing practices, and give the environmental dimension a prominent importance in its strategies marketing. Hence the interest in a new pattern in marketing, Green Marketing has been known as a marketing approach that provides solutions to these negative social and environmental impacts, centered on a strong commitment to environmental responsibility in the practice of marketing activities (Al-Samadi, 2009).
The problem that has raised by many researchers in this field, which is the green economy and its impact on sustainable development and consumer behavior, is to increase the carbon emissions resulting from natural factors or industries that may affect environmental pollution based on non-renewable energy sources represented in coal, oil and fossil fuels, which led to an increase in harmful carbon impacts and also a threat to these resources. Which is characterized by scarcity in the short term, and as a result of this, the search for alternative resources for industry and investment appeared in the form of renewable energy resources such as sun, wind and new sources of energy such as natural gas and tidal energy, as we note now in Jordan, most of the official and private institutions start using the renewable energy like the sun, and this attracted the researcher’s attention to this end.
Moreover, achieving sustainable development and high rates of growth for an indefinite period has become one of the goals pursued globally and locally. All countries in the world are seeking to achieve sustainable development that includes all aspects (economic, social, environmental, political, and technical). Wadded is considered among the countries that seek to achieve sustainable development, according to the recommendations of the United Nations Development Program and the International Monetary Fund. Therefore, the study aims to study the experiences of other countries that have applied the green economy to achieve development for application at the level of Jordan and the Arab world.
1. Can Developing countries convert their economies from the brown economy or the underdeveloped economy to the green economy and achieve sustainable development?
2. What are the main factors that must be present in each company in order to be innovative compared to industrialized and technologically advanced countries especially in stimulating tourism?
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The study aims to find strong ways and strategies to apply the green economy in Jordan in order to achieve sustainable development and encourage investment and reduce the gap between the rich and poor people for a decent life. This study also aims through comparison and case studies of countries similar to Jordan and some Arab countries in the conditions and social situation to benefit from their experiences in sustainable development, in an effort to clarify the best ways to help achieve sustainable development using clean energy and (green economy).
The researcher uses the experimental approach method as it’s studies the effect of the green economy in countries to reach sustainable development and this is clarified through experimental studies for some countries in converting their economy to the green economy to achieve the hoped-for goal which is sustainable development.
The researcher also uses the descriptive and analytical approach, as it relies on describing and analyzing country experiences to benefit and apply in Jordan and the rest of the region.
HYPOTHESES OF STUDY
The study based on a set of hypotheses that will be validated or not through research in this field. These hypotheses are as follows:
1- The green economy is central to poverty eradication?
2- The green economy is a path to achieving sustainable development (the strong relationship between them)?
3- Availability of new and renewable capabilities and energy resources in Jordan to make it experience the transformation of its economy into a green economy?
4- Access to sustainable development 2030?
Green marketing in some fruit and vegetable producing countries revolves around the commitment of business organizations to deal with environmentally friendly goods (goods that are not harmful to society and the natural environment) and carry out marketing activities within the framework of a strong commitment to environmental responsibility and within specific controls to ensure the preservation of the natural environment and not to harm it. Most definitions of green marketing revolve around these axes. The most important definitions of green marketing can be summarized in the following points: -
1. Prid and Ferrell define green marketing as “the process of developing, pricing and promoting products that are not harmful to the natural environment” (prid: 2000. p86 & Ferrell).
2. Stanton defines green marketing as “marketing activity of a particular organization aimed at creating a positive effect or eliminating the negative impact of a particular product on the environment” (Stanton et al., 1997, p612).
3. As for Darymple & Parson, they define green marketing as a “creative management approach aimed at achieving a balance between customer needs, environmental requirements and profitability objective.” (Darymple & Parson: 2000:19).
4. Yong has known green marketing as “one of the kinds of eco-friendly marketing”. (Yong, et al., 2001)
5. Al-Bakri defines Green Marketing, “an integrated systemic process that aims to influence preferences customers in a way that leads them to go to order products that are not harmful to the environment and modify their habits consumption in line with that and work to provide products that satisfy this trend so that they are the bottom line is to protect the environment, protect consumers and achieve the company’s profitability goal. (Al-Bakri, 2006: 252).
The above definition of (Bakri) appears to be a more comprehensive view of green marketing. But in fact, this definition is a collection of the findings of the writers who were mentioned previously. (Al-Bakri, 2012: 52-54) believes that this concept focuses on a set of principles highlighted:
1. Green marketing can be viewed from the point of the regulatory approach as: It is known that the systemic approach consists of inputs, processes and outputs as green marketing appears to be applied by changing the type of inputs from natural and primary resources and production processes and making them fit and consistent with the principles and foundations upon which green marketing is based, and from environmental requirements (reducing pollution levels to less As far as possible, reduce production spoilage, etc.).
As for the processes, they are related to the marketing mix (product, price, promotion, distribution). When the organization adopts the concept of green marketing, then the marketing mix becomes green in this case with the green marketing mix (it will be explained later) regarding the outputs (final products) that do not harm the environment with their design in a way safe and recycled (remanufactured) again and also fulfill customer's requirements for the final product.
2. Change customer preferences in Jordan: Influencing customer preferences does not mean forcing them to buy an item. Rather, educating the customer, many customers are ignorant of what the production process is necessary to provide a specific product and the extent of its harm to the environment, and here the importance of joint responsibility of the Jordanian communities.
3. Providing the appropriate marketing mix at the level of the Arab world: The adoption of the concept of green marketing by business organizations at the level of the Arab world requires adjusting the marketing mix with all its elements in terms of product, pricing, promotion and distribution. Therefore, the marketing mix should be designed appropriately and congruently with this approach of (Green Marketing).
4. Achieving a balance between environmental protection, consumers and customer land, and achieving the goal of profitability for the company.
These elements required by the customer, the environment, and the company are the primary goals and objectives of the green marketing entrance at the level of the Arab world. The balance between them may be very difficult and the company that can achieve this budget is the companies that will achieve success.
According to the Related studies the Reasons for adopting the green marketing approach Al-Nouri (2004: 9-11) and others see that the reasons that drive business organizations to adopt the green marketing approach, as follows.
It has become clear now that customers of all kinds (individuals and organizations) have become more interested and more aware of the natural environment, and in a study conducted in 1992 in 16 countries, it was found that more than 50% of consumers and customers in every country possess an interest in the natural environment, and in a study Conducted in 1994 in Australia, it was found that more than 84.6% of the sample believe that each individual has a special responsibility to protect the natural environment, and in the same study it was found that 80% of the sample had modified their behavior, including purchasing habits for environmental reasons. And with the changing demand and the emergence of environmental trends among customers, many evils It’s the trend towards adopting green marketing entrance. To take advantage of new market opportunities, it can therefore be assumed that companies that market products with environmental characteristics will have a competitive advantage that differentiates them from companies that market environmentally irresponsible products.
Strategies in Jordan, multiple references, and conflicting laws hinder the development of the tourism sector. According to the Al-Ghad newspaper - Amman on 11/A/2020, the Jordanian Strategies Forum confirmed the existence of many challenges and gaps in the green tourism sector, such as the presence of ineffective laws and tourism regulations that lead to duplication of some roles between the Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities, the Petra Authority, the Aqaba Authority, and some ministries The other.
The forum pointed to the weak incentives offered to local investors and the presence of a shortage of four-star hotels, especially in Petra and Aqaba and the weak tourism and hotel education that does not meet the needs of the private sector.
This came within a policy paper issued by the forum on the tourism sector in Jordan, entitled Enhancing the competitiveness of the tourism sector: prospects and adaptation to developments.
The main highlights in a report on the main reasons for the Kingdom’s weak competitiveness in green tourism:
1- The largest Jordanian public sector in the world
2- Jordanian productivity is among the lowest in the world
3- Public debt is among the top 18 global ratios
4- Budget: The third highest deficit in the world
5- National savings are among the lowest six in the world
6- The business environment” which tracks the most in need of reform
7- The decline in the quality of mathematics and science education in schools
The paper presented by the forum on tourism and its weakness in Jordan showed that the tourism law, in its current form, suffers from many gaps that affect the progress of the tourism sector, and it also lacks the sovereign formula over other laws, which often leads to low efficiency (Figure 1).
In this context, the forum recommended the necessity of reviewing the legal structure prepared by the World Bank recently for the tourism sector and revising all laws and regulations from outside the tourism sector that have an impact on it and lead to the weakness of the existing system.
The paper raised the issue of the lack of a system for managing risks in the tourism field, as it is necessary to make a classification of all natural and heritage sites according to the level of risk in them and to issue new instructions to the tourism and education sectors accordingly without many complications.
With regard to tourism associations, the analysis presented in the study showed that it needs to organize its efforts to make it more able to meet the needs of the sector.
Accordingly, the paper called for the reactivation of the Federation of Tourism Associations to ensure regular communication, coordination in relation to the implementation of the national tourism strategy, finding solutions to common challenges, permanent communication with the government to find solutions to accumulated or new issues, supporting micro, small and medium enterprises, and establishing a cash fund for crisis management or provide seed funding for entrepreneurs in the sector and elsewhere.
In the event that it is difficult to achieve this, the paper recommended the establishment of a chamber for the tourism sector in place of the existing mandatory societies and their union, so that the chamber represents each of the tourism sectors, the tourism transport sector, local community institutions and other stakeholders.
The paper stressed the need to pay attention to tourist sites of a special nature, such as the plunge site, desert castles and other sites that if restored and provide the necessary facilities and infrastructure around it will contribute to attracting more tourists to Jordan because of the competitive advantage that these sites enjoy regionally and globally.
As for tourism transport, the study showed that opening lines for low-cost airlines had a positive impact on increasing the number of tourists coming to Jordan, as this led to an increase in the number of guests in the three and four star hotels, in addition to the benefit of many other tourism sectors such as car rental companies And tourist camps and restaurants.
Accordingly, the forum recommended that the government continue to support and motivate new low-cost airlines to open new routes to Jordan.
The paper indicated that road transport has constituted one of the biggest challenges in the tourism sector over the past two years 2017-2019, as the decrease in the number of tourists during the Arab Spring period led to the lack of adequate maintenance of buses and the lack of expansion of investments in this sector, and once the numbers of tourists increased There was a great shortage of tourist buses.
The paper emphasized the importance of the Jordanian health sector as a supportive sector for tourism, as it recommended looking at medical tourism from a completely new perspective, taking into account new global trends in this sector and working hard to raise the level of services on the one hand and attracting new markets on the other hand.
The paper also called for encouraging the development of world-class health and medical resorts that use diagnostic medical technology and facilitate immediate doctor-patient communication.
To advance the tourism sector and enhance its positive impact on the growth of the national economy, the paper recommended that the tourism sector should be given a special priority as a promising sector that could contribute effectively to supporting the national economy.
The paper also recommended the necessity of structural and legal reforms for the frameworks that regulate the work of the tourism sector in Jordan in order to facilitate procedures and eliminate inconsistencies to attract more investments to the sector and encourage international and domestic tourism in Jordan.
The forum study showed that tourism services accounted for 12.5% of GDP in 2017, and that tourism is expected to have contributed more to GDP at the end of 2019.
Jordan recorded a 6.5% increase in the number of tourists in the first quarter of 2019 compared to the same period in 2017-2018.
The statistics issued by the Central Bank indicate that tourism revenues amounted to about 1.29 billion dinars until the third quarter of 2019, in addition to the number of workers in the tourism sector reaching approximately 53,389 people in the third quarter of the same year.
The paper showed that the International Airport Group (AIG) recorded a 5.7% increase in the number of travelers arriving to Jordan through Queen Alia International Airport between January and September 2019 compared to the same period in 2018 with a total of 6,913,596 passengers.
The number of visitors to the city of Petra reached its highest historical record in 2019, reaching 1,350,000 visitors at the end of the year. The Al-Maghtas site, Aqaba city, Wadi Rum, Al-Karak Castle and Madaba city recorded unprecedented numbers of visitors. Al-Maghtas website received a number of visitors with an increase of 29.1% at the end of November of 2019 compared to the same period in 2018, while Madaba received an increase of 28.6 % For the end of the year 2019.
However, on the organizational side of tourism, the forum paper showed that Jordan's ranking on the global travel and tourism competitiveness index has witnessed a decline, as in 2009 Jordan ranked 54th globally and this ranking fell to 84th globally in 2019.
The paper indicated that despite Jordan's retreat on the index, many decisions have been taken that are considered positive progress in the tourism field.
Recently, restrictions on entry visas for restricted nationalities were lifted under specific conditions, and a new medical tourism council was formed within the framework of the Tourism Promotion Authority.
The paper also pointed to many other steps that may have a positive impact in stimulating the tourism sector in Jordan, such as; modifying the tourism transportation system to facilitate entry to new companies, and providing tax exemptions for new and existing companies for a period of 3 years, and the decision will contribute to solving the problem of transportation in the tourism sector.
On the Jordanian newspaper Al-Dustour dated May 31, 2017. The French ambassador affirms his country's interest in renewable energy projects in Jordan, as the French ambassador to Amman, David Bertolotti, stressed his country's interest in supporting environmental initiatives and renewable energy projects, and the commitment of French companies investing in the Kingdom to the principle of social responsibility.
The green economy in Jordan ... a need and a strategic choice
As the global financial recession sparked a serious debate among many countries about revealing the causes of failure and devising reasonable solutions, the search for “transformational” economic growth has become very common today, with clean energy and green investment at the forefront as a solution to a better future. In the countries that are at the heart of change in the Arab world, the famous “spring” brought a different flavor to the desired change and reform. In Jordan, attention to the issue of sustainability (environmental or social) is a need and also a strategic choice. And because the natural resources are very limited and the demand is increasing, the state's response to the needs of citizens and the environment is not just a political commitment, but a milestone that has not been exploited yet that would make Jordan a regional platform for development directed to local communities and sustainable investments.
Therefore, we should not keep Jordan locked into the argument of “environment versus investment”, as they both meet to support development goals, especially in a fragile environment such as that available in our country. The major energy crisis that recently afflicted the Jordanian people has led to a qualitative shift in perception and practice. Never has we been more aware of the cost of energy and the difficult budgetary constraints as they are today. The water problem, which is another reality coming to Jordan and the state can hardly face.
Engineer Al-Daradkeh, in his study of green marketing on 31/01/2018, emphasized that “the Green Corridor” enters service before the end of 2018. Likewise, the Director General of the Jordanian National Electricity Company, Mr. Abdel Fattah Al-Daradkeh, suggested that the Green Corridor for Renewable Energy project should enter the service before the end of the current year. Al-Daradkeh said, in response to questions of the delegate of the newspaper “Al-Ghad” yesterday, “The specialized contractors are about to finish pouring the concrete bases for the transport lines according to the agreed schedule.” Al-Daradakh added, “The completion of the project's other components, such as electrical transformers, generators and other procedures, is proceeding according to the plan.”
The project will assist in the transfer of electrical energy ranging from 800 to 1000 MW of renewable energy from the south of the Kingdom to the load centers in other regions of the Kingdom. And the “Green Corridor” project, which will be established in the south of the Kingdom, is one of the important and purposeful projects to accommodate the new electrical loads generated from renewable energy sources, as it will contribute to raising the efficiency of the company's electric carrier line, by building electricity transmission lines, expanding the Qatraneh transfer station, and expanding an airport transfer station Queen Alia International. The share of renewable energy (sun and wind) in the total energy mix reached about 500 MW by the end of last year, to reach about 2700 MW in 2021 of the total generating capacity of the Kingdom and its current amount is 4,500 MW.
The company expected, earlier, that the combined capacity of the energy produced from renewable sources in 2019 would reach about 30% of the total capacity of the system, while the ministry also opened the door for developers interested in entering into electrical energy storage projects produced from renewable energy projects.
The cost of the project is estimated at $172 million, of which $ 20 million is the value of the contribution of “National Electricity”, and the project consists of three bids.
To this end, the company signed two agreements to implement two phases of the Green Corridor for Renewable Energy project at a cost of approximately 22.4 million dinars for the two phases, as the tender concerns the construction of the new transfer station in Maan 400 kV No. 62/2015, and it has been referred to the (Saudi National Contracting) company at a cost of approximately 19 One million dinars, and the second tender includes the supply and installation of transformers for Ma’an Transformer Station No. 63/2015, and it has been referred to the company (Electricity Network Solutions Industry) owned by General Electric, while the cost of implementing this stage is about 3.4 million dinars, while The third bid was awarded under two agreements with my company Indian and Romanian total cost of the tender amounting to 20.830 million dinars.
Statistics of the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources indicate that the ability of the electrical system to exceed the end of the current year is expected to exceed 4170 MW from about 3800 MW currently, in addition to the increase in the demand for electricity by 5.9% at the end of this year, and 6.6% by the end of 2020 And 7% by the end of the year 2025.
Ethical commitment and social responsibility
Many companies in the have now begun to understand clearly that they are members of a large society, and that they have great social and environmental responsibilities, and this is what made these companies believe that they must strive towards achieving the same environmental goals as they seek to achieve profitability goals.
This trend has significantly led to a degree of complementarity between the environmental and cultural issues of these companies.
Companies within this range can adopt one of two main approaches:
A. These companies can benefit from the fact that they are environmentally responsible as a marketing tool.
B. They can become environmentally responsible without promoting it.
There are many examples of companies adopting one of these two inputs, for example (Body Shop) runs extensive promotional campaigns that depend on highlighting the fact that it is an environmentally responsible company, while in the other direction Coca-Cola invests annually large sums on many environmental activities, but it Do not use this as a marketing tool.
Regarding all marketing activities, governments always strive to protect customers and society, and this protection has a major impact in adopting the green marketing approach. Governmental legislations related to green marketing have been designed to protect customers in several forms such as reducing the production of environmentally harmful goods, setting or modifying consumer habits of customers, whether they are consumers or industrial users, and ensuring that all types of customers have the ability to estimate the environmental characteristics of the goods.
The locational framework of the study:
Dependence on the experiences of some developed countries in the field of green energy, such as (Germany - Singapore - the United States of America and some western countries).
And the experiences of some developing countries such as (the United Arab Emirates "source" - Morocco) in order to apply to Jordan and some Arab countries that suffer from green marketing and sustainable development.
With the membership of the delivery program for must companies in the world they have increased in days, for example, Amazon Prime expanded the delivery services and the status achieved by the Kindle Fire HD device as an attractive alternative to the iPad, in addition to the Amazon centers promise to connect using drones within 30 minutes. All this puts the company ahead of its competitors.
Gilead, a UK-based company, has developed a treatment for hepatitis B while it continues to advance the development of another treatment for HIV.
The German automaker takes the lead in adding autonomous driving to its cars, and the company expects to start selling 2020 technology ready-to-use vehicles in 2020. Also, Toyota Against the backdrop of the success of the hybrid Prius, Toyota plans to manufacture hydrogen fuel cells to meet the needs of consumers interested in the environment.
10 of the most innovative companies in the world:
1. Apple company
3. Tesla Motors
8. Glade Science
Green marketing in the third world countries
With the increasing pressure on the environment as a result of the various commitments and activities that serve the economy, especially in the major industrialized countries, the concept of the green economy began to appear in the third world countries, especially for the development of economies for sustainable tourism and the development of peoples and organizations, which means achieving sustainable growth and development without prejudice to the ecosystem as well as providing assistance and grants to countries Poor women in order to advance education, health and infrastructure, thereby achieving justice and equality in development.
Today, more than a billion people use and exploit the environment. Governments in the third world countries suffer from global financial crises, especially due to wars. The gap between the rich and the poor increases more, and if the waste of resources continues, 4 billion people will live in places that suffer from severe water shortages by 2050. China and India will need 80% more energy that relies mainly on fossil fuels, greenhouse gases will remain stable in the countries of the Organization for International Cooperation and Development (OECD) and Russia, while more than double in the BRICS group, and increase in the rest of the world and globally More than 50%, which is more than M. The earth's temperature is from 3 to 6 degrees Celsius by the end of the century.
Countries like Jordan, Syria, Palestine, the Gaza Strip and Libya cannot do anything for their people in light of the financial and political crises and the grinding wars on their lands.
The UAE's efforts to achieve a green economy: The UAE is making unremitting efforts to achieve a green economy, and these efforts include reducing oil and gas burning, developing technologies that are profitable for all, as well as carbon capture and storage technology, in addition to enhancing efficiency, effectiveness, and environmental sustainability standards.
The Emirates is working on: Develop profitable technologies for everyone
These techniques include enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods in older oil tanks, where oil does not flow easily, which leads to the pumping of natural gas into the tanks, to add more pressure and increase production.
The green economy in Jordan a need and a strategic choice: The global financial recession has sparked a serious debate among many countries about revealing the causes of failure and devising reasonable solutions. The search for “transformational” economic growth in Jordan has become very common today, with clean energy and green investments at the forefront as a solution to a better future. In countries that are at the heart of change in the Arab world, the famous “Arab Spring” brought a different flavor to the desired change and reform. In Jordan, attention to the issue of sustainability (environmental or social) is a need and also a strategic choice. And because the natural resources are very limited and the demand is increasing, the state's response to the needs of citizens and the environment is not just a political commitment, but a milestone that has not been exploited yet that would make Jordan a regional platform for development directed to local communities and sustainable investments.
Therefore, we should not remain trapped in the “environment versus investment” argument, as they both meet to support development goals, especially in a fragile environment such as that available in our country. The major energy crisis that recently afflicted the Jordanian people has led to a qualitative shift in perception and practice. Never has we been more aware of the cost of energy and the difficult budget constraints as we are today. I wish I could say the same thing with regard to water, which is another fact that is hardly coming for us and we are ready to face it in Jordan.
The green building concept needs support so that everyone feels its importance as it will provide financial and environmental benefits to Jordanian individuals, including the following.
Challenges facing green buildings in Jordan
Green marketing in Palestine and the Palestinian state is transformed into it
The transformation of the green economy in Palestine: The concept of green economy appears new in Palestine, and it is classified as still in the nascent stage and limited to individual experiences, without the existence of policies and legislation that pave the way for this type of economy that receives global attention in light of climate changes and the challenges it poses before the whole world.
The difference between Green Marketing and Traditional Marketing as we can see in Table 1. Green Marketing significantly differs from Traditional Marketing.
It is characterized by a distinct trend in greening the company’s business, but offset by a low trend towards fragmentation of the green market. This strategy is based on the implementation of business that is environment-friendly and that financial obligations play a major impact on its long-term green marketing orientation.
Figure 2 shows a holistic diagram of the steps involved in designing a green marketing strategy. It passes through many stages of formulating the vision and message, analyzing the internal environment and the external environment, defining green marketing goals and also passing through the formulation of green strategy and implementation and the last stage of oversight.
RESEARCH FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS
Through research in the scope of work with the green marketing strategy, the researcher found that there are several problems facing the consumer in this scope, which are explained in the following:
1- Through research on the Jordanian market in the cities of Amman and Irbid, which are more populous and the results of questionnaires, it is revealed that Jordan is a small country in terms of area with limited resources, and although its economy is constantly improving since the announcement of its independence, its recent conditions are worrying in terms of high production costs and high energy prices affect The competitiveness of domestic products in favor of foreign commodities, and its economy faces five obstacles:
2- With energy, water, agricultural plots, Syrian asylum, and market instability. The Jordanian economy ranks 89th globally, its GDP per capita increased by 351% in the seventies, and it declined slightly, only 30% during the eighties, and returned to rise again by 30% in the nineties. About 10% of Jordan's lands are suitable for cultivation through construction and population expansion, the groundwater resources are limited, and the rainfall rate is low and varies greatly between regions to another and from year to year. Many groundwater resources are non-renewable. Jordan's most important resources are phosphates, potash, fertilizers and their derivatives which are sold to foreign companies, in addition to tourism and remittances from abroad, in addition to foreign aid.
3- Jordan lacks reserves of coal and hydroelectric power, the lack of large areas of forests and tree wealth, in addition to a lack of oil deposits. Jordan relies on natural gas for 10% of its domestic energy needs. Jordan was dependent on Iraq to import oil until the US invasion of Iraq in 2003, and Jordan is classified as an emerging country.
4- The Kingdom's economy relied mainly on the services, trade and tourism sector, and on some extractive industries, such as fertilizers and medicines. Jordan is poor in natural resources. Phosphate mines are located in the south of the Kingdom, making Jordan the third largest exporter of this material in the world. Other important resources extracted include potash, salts, natural gas and limestone.
5- Tourism, for example, the researcher finds that tourism in Jordan enters a very dangerous juncture, as in most countries of the world that rely on tourism as a source of income, the greatest importance for them lies in introducing the tourist to a beautiful experience that he remembers throughout his life, so that he returns again to visit the country in the future, or At least he tells his friends and family what he saw and lived, so the tourist income increases year after year. Although Jordan is distinguished for having great archaeological treasures, on top of which is Petra, one of the Seven Wonders of the World, but unfortunately, most of the statistics for tourism in Jordan indicate that most tourists who come once do not return again, so we will review some of the reasons that lead to this:
Attempting to exploit tourists financially: In most countries of the world, you find that the prices for entering archaeological sites, museums and hotels, and transportation prices from one place to another, and the prices of food in restaurants and the prices of different heritage goods seem to be uniform for the inhabitants of the country of origin and tourists as far whether. But what happens in Jordan sometimes is a process of exploitation for tourists who ignore the matter at first, but it keeps in them a lump and a feeling of uneasiness that they remember every time they think about visiting the country again.
The political situation in the region: The difficult political situation in the Middle East region as a whole affects the tourism product in the whole region, so the tourist looks with fear in the idea of visiting the region. In the end, we wish success to all components of the tourism sector in Jordan, which works hard despite the circumstances to increase the knowledge of people in Jordan and the tourist places that we own.
The problem of agricultural marketing, or the problems, are transient to times and governments, in light of protracted and current regional crises and sometimes abilities, failures here and successes there, an ongoing crisis between the producer and the consumer, virtual loops made by marooners in the markets, and research in traditional solutions whose results are sometimes on behalf of a party on else. When politicians produce their farms, they are exported outside the country. When the citizen produces, the state makes a ministerial decision to stop the export.
For tourism product:
· Enhancing the tourism product in Jordan through budgets and the infrastructure.
· Governmental and private bodies should take effective field steps to materialize the decisions of the various charters and recommendations issued by the World Tourism Organization and international bodies, in order to preserve the environment and achieve sustainable tourism development.
· The government, tourist agencies and individuals should adopt environmental health and safety standards in the preparation of environmental tourism programs, and intensify promotional efforts to spread environmental awareness culture, preserve nature and the necessity of adopting the concept of sustainable marketing.
· The government should enhance attention to the environmental dimension in the field of developing environmental tourism programs by adopting different marketing tools, to achieve the wishes of tourists on the one hand and reduce the negative effects of business organizations on human and other health on the other.
· The necessity of concerted efforts of the public and private sectors in the field of developing tourism projects, and achieving continuous communication between them in order to avoid the tourism expansion that harms the environment, distorts the beauty of nature or disturbs the environmental and environmental systems.
· The necessity of the intervention of all actors in the tourism sector, including workers, tourists, governments, and local communities, in order to value environmental tourist destinations, and contribute to spreading environmental awareness culture and preserving natural resources.
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