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Diffraction has long been used to determine the crystal and molecular structures of compounds related to each other by the addition or subtraction of atoms as in the family of “tosylates” [1-5] Such studies required the determination of the crystal and molecular arrangement of atoms in the molecules. X-ray diffraction is used to determine all atoms apart from hydrogens and neutron diffraction determines the positions of the hydrogen atoms. Such studies have already determined the molecular structures of skin and hair [6-8]. This paper only concerns the changes to the structures of skin and/or hair when a cancer enters.
The molecular structures of skin and hair are shown in Figures 1 and 2. The additional molecules added by cancers do not change these low angle X-ray diffraction patterns of skin or hair but simply stamp their own exclusive ring or rings onto the skin and/or hair patterns.
These additional exclusive cancer rings appear as soon as the cancer starts and provide a very early, highly accurate diagnostic tool for the detection of that particular cancer. For example, evidence of the exclusive change for low grade prostate cancer is given in Figure 3, where a clear low-grade prostate cancer ring appears between the 13th and 14th meridional in a skin sample for a male in his early twenties.
The same exclusive low-grade prostate ring was also found in the low angle X-ray diffraction patterns of TRAMP transgenic mice, 3 days after birth, and some days before any other test could detect that these were transgenic mice (Figure 4).
This is the time for the prostate cancer to be removed by chemotherapy, saving the young patient a lifetime of problems. There is no need for surgery. The total removal of the prostate cancer can be verified by a further diffraction study after every dose of chemotherapy to check whether or not the cancer had been removed. Such low-grade cancers have been found in diffraction studies of men from eighteen years up. This reported discovery was ignored by the medical profession. [9-12]. However, if no action is taken at this early stage, this low-grade prostate ring gets wider and wider till it reaches the 15th order at Gleason7 and becomes even wider after that. Further rings now appear on the 17th and/or the 18th orders simply because the prostate cancer has escaped into the body either via the lymph nodes or through the surface as a result of treatments. In one of my recent sets of samples from prostate patients, 19 out of 29 patients showed a Perineural invasion. A pattern from such a high-grade prostate patient is shown in Figure 5.
Regrettably, even if the cancer is removed, the invading cancer cannot be removed as shown in Figure 6. This means that the cancer has moved into the body either to the bones or the liver.
Nothing can be done for men with such invasions. They must put up with the invading cancer for the rest of their lives. So, men must avoid a prostatectomy at all costs by having a prostate cancer diffraction test every year starting in their early twenties.
However, both low- and high-grade prostate cancers have been removed by chemotherapy only, without surgery. Their diffraction patterns in all such cases returned to that of normal skin (Figure 7).
Whilst the low-grade prostate cancer was easily removed, the high-grade cancer removal required 3 monthly injections of Lucrin depot 22.5 mg for 3 years. This was followed by 1 month of daily CY proterene 10 mg tablets. This was followed finally by 40 treatments of the highest dose of radiation. This was not easy to bear but at least he was completely cured without any invasions and no prostatectomy!
All cancers can be diagnosed using skin samples. Some examples are melanoma, breast cancer and bowel cancer (Figure 8a-c)) respectively.
Breast cancer also shows up in hair, as illustrated in Figure 9. The added ring for breast cancer shows out clearly superimposed on the normal hair pattern.
This breast cancer shows up at least two years ahead of when the cancer can be seen on a mammogram, giving chemotherapy a chance to remove it without the need of considering a double mastectomy. If diffraction tests are done yearly from age 16, chemotherapy should have wiped it out before it is even visible on a mammogram. However, the chemotherapy normally used for breast cancer, which always removes all the bodily hair and also sometimes the fingernails, should not be used. Tamoxifen has been used successfully in Manchester .
However, should the lady have had a lumpectomy to remove a slightly larger breast cancer, the usual chemotherapy should not be used until a diffraction test has checked whether her cancer has been totally removed or not. In fact, such a test should follow every mastectomy as well.
Looking at the case of a patient who underwent a lumpectomy for a small cancer, after her surgery her doctor insisted that she take chemotherapy and radiation. The diffraction pictures tell her story (Figures 10a-10c).
Figure 10c shows only a picture of hair. The cancer has gone completely. Do you really believe that the chemotherapy that started 10 days later was needed? All this obligatory chemotherapy and radiation achieved was the removal of her waist length hair.
Beware and Take care! Chemotherapy can be useful but is not easy to endure and may not always be necessary. Please take always to check, with low angle diffraction before the chemotherapy is started, to make sure it is necessary! Such low angle diffraction tests take only a minimum time, and a pubic hair cut from close to the skin or a 3mm skin biopsy taken from the stomach or buttocks. Costs should therefore also be minimum.
The author acknowledges the generous support of the BioCAT facility (Advanced Photon Source), Argonne National Laboratory and for the assistance provided by the beam-line staff of this facility. The Advanced Photon Source is supported by the US Department of Energy, Basic Energy Sciences, and Office of Science under Contract No. W-31-109-ENG-38 -31-109-Eng-38. BioCAT is a National Institute of Health-supported Research Centre RR- 08630.
The author also acknowledges the generous support of the Australian Synchrotron for beam-time on their low angle beam-line, the assistance of Jason Buttigieg, post grad student at Monash University, and the beam-line staff. The author is also indebted to her sons, Glen and Shane James, who assisted at Argonne National Laboratory and the many other students from around the world who also assisted on various experiments at BioCAT.
1. James VJ, McConnell JF (1971) The crystal structure and conformation of cyclohexyltosylate. Tetrahedron 27: 5475-5480.
2. James VJ (1973) t-t-decaly1-2-tosylate, C17H26S03. Cryst Struct Comm 2: 307-331.
3. James VJ, McConnell JF (1972) The crystal and molecular Structure of trans-4-t- butylcyclohexyl-toluene-p-sulphonate. Tetrahedron 28(11): 2900-2906.
4. James VJ, Grainger CT (1972) Cis-4-t-butylcyclohexyl-toluene-p-sulphonate C17H26S03. Cryst Struct Comm 1: 111.
5. Johnson PL, Cheer C, Schaefer JP, James VJ, et al. (1972). The crystal and molecular Structure of trans-4-t-butylcyclohexyl-toluene-p-sulphonate. Tetrahedron 28 (11): 2893-2899.
6. Brodsky B, Eikenberry EF, Cassidy K (1980) An unusual periodicity in skin. Biochim Biophys Acta Prot 621: 162-166.
7. Stinson RH, Sweeney PR (1980) Skin has an unusual d-spacing. Biochim Biophys Acta Prot 621: 158-161.
8. Feughelman M, Willis B, James V (2006). Proceedings of 11th International Wool Research Conference, Leeds, UK.
9. James VJ (2011). Extremely early diagnostic test for prostate cancer journal of cancer therapy.
10. James VJ, Judith M, Ford O (2014). Fibre diffraction analysis of skin offers a very early and extremely accurate diagnostic test for prostate cancer. J Cancer Res.
11. James VJ (2018) Diagnosis of cancer using x-ray diffraction of skin. Japan J Med 1(2): 134-139.
12. Cusick J, Sestak I, Cawthorn S, Hamed H, et al. (2015) IBIS-I Investigators. 2015 Tamoxifen for prevention of breast cancer: extended long-term follow-up of the IBIS-I breast cancer prevention trial. Lancet Oncol 1: 67-75.
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