Mini-Review
Plant Essential Oils as Ecofriendly Pesticides for Controlling the Peach Fruit Fly
Mahmoud Abbas Ali*
Corresponding Author: Mahmoud Abbas Ali, Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, South Valley University, Egypt
Received: November 07, 2019; Accepted: November 25, 2019 Available Online: December 18, 2019
Citation: Ali MA. (2020) Plant Essential Oils as Ecofriendly Pesticides for Controlling the Peach Fruit Fly. J Agric Forest Meteorol Res, 3(5): 382-385.
Copyrights: ©2020 Ali MA. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Peach fruit fly is one of the most dangerous insect pests facing fruit production in the world. Plant oils are group of the most promising materials and compounds for controlling fruit flies, especially peach fruit fly, where it is ecofriendly and does not produce harmful effects on human health.

INTRODUCTION

Tephritidae famous as true fruit flies (Diptera), are a large group of flies include more than 4500 species described. The genus Bactrocera, one of these family members which include about 500 species, which are phytophagous. The Peach fruit fly (PFF) is considered one of the most dangerous fruit pests belong to Bactrocera genus which have wide distribution all over the world especially in Egypt, as it is spread in most areas of the Republic due to its adaptation to various climatic regions, high polyphagia and rapid reproduction [1]. It attacks a wide range of hosts (over 50 cultivated and wild plant species) such as: guava, mango, peach, apricot, fig and citrus [2].

CURRENT CONTROL METHODS

During the twenty first century, the uses of alternative methods are new trends rather than the use of conventional pesticides such as: organophosphorus compounds (i.e., malathion, diazinon and nailed) in order to reduce risk of insecticide treatment. Many technologies have developed for wide-area control of Tephritidae fruit flies and related species throughout Asia, Africa and the Pacific (Table 1).

Use of essential oils as control methods

The use of organic and ecofriendly materials is now an urgent necessity, especially when problems arise from the expansion of pesticide use. Essential oils are one of the most promising substances in the control of insect pests, especially peach fruit fly (Table 2). There are many essential oils used in management of fruit flies as described below:

 

Fecundity: Akhtar et al. [10] tested the toxic effects of neem seeds, turmeric and sweet flag rhizomes on settling response and fecundity of B. zonata. His results indicate that, turmeric extracts inhibited egg laying and development of pupae and adults.

TOXIC AND GROWTH INHIBITION

Valariana officianalis in ethanol and petroleum ether extracts had significant toxic and growth inhibiting effects on fruit fly [11]. While neem formulation has a significant effect against B. zonata eggs. Aranciba et al. [12] reported that the essential oil of clove has a good insecticidal activity against C. capitata that can be used to improve quality of fruit and for food products. Allium sativum has been demonstrated as numerous insecticidal activities on a wide range of insect species, for example, its juice had insecticidal activity against Delia radicum and Musca domestica [13]. Besides, in a recent study, a group of oils were used to control the pupa stage of the peach fruit fly. Eucalyptus oil showed remarkable superiority over other oils, as well as morphological changes, where the oils caused deformities in the adult flies resulting from treated pupa [9].

Repellent

 

Rehman [14] found that the petroleum ether extract of C. longa, ethanol and acetone extract of P. harmala were the most promising repellent against peach fruit fly B. zonata in a free choice bioassay. Neem oil and eucalyptus leaf solution showed high repellent action against the peach fruit flies as compared to neem seed powder solution and tobacco leaf solution [15].

 

1.       Ali MA (2016) Effect of temperature on the development and survival of immature stages of the peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Afr J Agric Res 11: 3375-3381.

2.       EPPO (2010) PM 9/11 (1): Bactrocera zonata: Procedure for official control. EPPO Bull 40: 390-395.

3.       Roessler Y (1989) Control; insecticides; insecticidal bait and cover spray. In: Fruit Flies: their Biology; Natural Enemies and Control (Eds Robinson AS & Hooper G); World Crop Pests 3 (B). Elsevier; Netherlands, p: 447.

4.       Prokopy RJ, Miller NW, Pinero JC, Barry JD, Tran LC, et al., (2003) Effectiveness of GF-120 fruit fly bait spray applied to border area plants for control of melon flies (Diptera: Tephritidae). J Econ Entomol 96:1485-1493.

5.       Stark JD, Vargas R (2009) An evaluation of alternative insecticides to diazinon for control of tephritid fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in soil. J Econ Entomol 102:139-143.

6.       McInnis D, Leblanc L, Mau R (2007) Melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) genetic sexing: All-male sterile fly releases in Hawaii. Proc Hawaiian Entomol Soc 39: 105-110.

7.       Vargas RI, Leblanc L, Putoa R, Eitam A (2007) Impact of introduction of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) and classical biological control releases of Fopius arisanus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on economically important fruit flies in French Polynesia. J Econ Entomol 100: 670-679.

8.       Allwood A, Blanc L, Vueti E, Bull R (2015) Fruit fly control methods for Pacific Island countries and territories.

9.       Ali MA (2018) Toxicity of certain plant oils on pupil stage of the peach fruit fly, B. zonata (sunders) (Tephritidae: Diptera). Adv Plants Agric Res 8: 372-374.

10.    Akhtar N, Jilani G, Mahmood R, Ashfaqe M, Iqbal J (2004) Effects of plant derivatives on settling response and fecundity of peach fruit fly Bactrocera zonata (Saunders). Sarhad J Agric 20: 269-274.

11.    Jilani G, Kattak MK, Shazad F (2006) Toxic and regulation effect of ethanol extract and petroleum ether extract of Valariana officianalis L. against Bactrocera zonata (Saund). Pak Entomol 28: 11-14.

12.    Arancibia M, Rabossi A, Bochicchio PA, Moreno S, López-Caballero ME, et al. (2013) Biodegradable films containing clove or citronella essential oils against the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae). J Agric Food Technol 3:1-7.

13.    Cheraghi Niroumand M, Farzaei MH, Razkenari E, Amin G, Khanavi M, et al. (2016) An evidence-based review on medicinal plants used as insecticide and insect repellent in traditional Iranian medicine. Iran Red Crescent Med J 18: 22361.

14.    Rehman J, Jilani G, Khan MA, Masih R, Kanvil S (2009) Repellent and oviposition deterrent effects of indigenous plant extracts to peach fruit fly; Bactrocera zonata Saunders (Diptera: Tephritidae). Pakistan J Zool 41: 101-109.

15.    Solangi BK, Sultana R, Wagan MS, Ahmed N (2011). Repellent action of botanical pesticides against fruit fly; Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) in laboratory. Pak J Entomol 26: 41-45.