Research Article
COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION IN CREATING PERFORMING ARTS EVENTS FOR TOURISM VILLAGE DEVELOPMENT IN WEST JAVA, INDONESIA.
Juju Masunah*, Ayo Sunaryo, Trianti Nugraheni
Corresponding Author: Juju Masunah, Professor of Arts Education Study Program, School of Postgraduate Studies, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia. 229 Setiabudi Street, Bandung 40154, West Java, Indonesia.
Received: 12 June 2022; Revised: 20 June 2022; Accepted: 23 June 2022 Available Online: 29 July 2022
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Previous research informed that community participation factors such as place attachment, perception of negative consequences, place satisfaction, and community collaboration present higher in compare with other factors. These indicated that local community in the village has public awareness and participation for tourism development. The purpose of this article is to describe community participation in creating performing arts events for tourism village development in Subang district, West Java, Indonesia. This qualitative research used a project-based approach. The participants of this research are the local communities in rural area of Ciater and Cibuluh villages in Subang district. The researchers and the local community collaborate and involve in creating performing arts project for tourism events. Through this project, the local community in the villages regard place attachment and place satisfied, even though the events still have low economic income benefit, infrastructure development, and low government support.

Keywords: Community participation, Arts tourism, Performing arts, Tourism village, Subang
INTRODUCTION
Tourism Village (Desa Wisata) is one of the programs nationally launched by Indonesian Government in year 2015 to build local community participation for tourism development (Vitria Aryani, et al., 2019) and to reduce urbanization from villages to the cities (Ayuningsih, et. al., 2019). In regards to the program, since 2010, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia (UPI) have developed community service programs about Empowerment of the Village or Desa Binaan (Masunah & Sunaryo, 2010). Desa Wisata has interconnected concept with Desa Binaan to empower local communities, engaging the people, natural and cultural resources to have impact for developing the villages economically, socially, and culturally. Lecturers, including myself, and the students at UPI have implemented the programs through research and community service programs.

Previous research (Setyorini, et. al., 2019) informed that community participation factors such as place attachment, perception of negative consequences, place satisfaction, and community collaboration present higher in compare with other factors. These factors indicated that local community has awareness to participate for tourism development. On behalf of Ministry of Tourism of the Republic of Indonesia, Fajar Ayuningsih, Heni Pridla, Shinta Teviningrom (2019) wrote guidebook to visit many destinations such as tourism villages and cities in Magelang - Kulon Progo - Purworejo, Belitung Timur, and Malang Raya. These places demonstrate community participation in tourism development, either in the villages or in the cities.

In this article, I chose the villages in Subang District, West Java, Indonesia as cases of community participation, even though the locations do not mention in the guidebook published by the Ministry of Tourism of The Republic of Indonesia. In year 2015, the government of Subang launched five villages as the new tourist destinations such as Cibeusi, Bunihayu, Cibuluh, Cisaat, and Cijambe, then, the new leader of Subang district in 2020 launched 15 villages including Cibuluh Village (http://Subang.go.id). Subang is one of the districts in West Java located in the North of Bandung, Indonesia. Subang has a well-known tourist destination called Ciater. The area is well-known for its hot springs and tea plantation located in Ciater Village. Furthermore, Subang has various natural atractions with potencials such as panorama, creative people, and culture. The culture is related to traditional performing arts such as bajidoran and Jaipongan (social folk dances), sisingaan or singa depok (the group of male dancers holding imitation of lion), celempungan (music instrument made from bamboo), etc. The purpose of this article is to describe community participation in creating performing arts for local tourism events in Ciater and Cibuluh Villages of Subang, West Java, Indonesia.

CREATING PERFORMING ARTS EVENT
Through qualitative approach, I used project-based research method (Stoeker, 2005) to work with local community in Ciater village of Subang to create performing arts event. This was the first project in community service program in 2010-2012. Ciater have already existed as the area of tourist destination.  The natural resources of hot springs as attraction of destination in Ciater is managed by Sari Ater Hotspring Spa Resort company. Therefore, this location was not mentioned in the framework of Desa Wisata development in Subang. However, performing arts event in Ciater area is rarely accoured.

We did research and community service program to create the project of arts tourism event in 2010 (Masunah & Sunaryo, 2010). The participants of this research are three lectures of UPI, including myself, and 20 UPI’s students, two experts of bamboo music (angklung) from Saung Angklung Udjo Bandung, 25 local community artists, 5 elementary schools’ teachers and 50 elementary students. The first program is training elementary school teachers to create performing arts based on local traditional children’s game. The purpose is to empower the teachers teaching elementary students based on local culture. In 2011, we continued working with elementary school teachers in collaboration with community artists (Masunah & Sunaryo, 2011). We worked with the community artists to identify the traditional performing arts which have the potential to be packaged as arts tourism event. The experts of bamboo music from the Foundation of Saung Angklung Udjo and the lecturers of UPI trained the elementary students to play angklung and practice dance as well as traditional play. The school teachers worked with the students to perform Jaipongan dance.

We discussed with local artists about arts tourism concept developed by Soedarsono (2002). Soedarsono (2002) states that the characteristics of arts tourism such as eye-catching, diverse, short run-time performance, without sacred elements, and inexpensive. The schools’ teachers, the students of UPI, and the researchers managed all activities in three months in 2011. The result of the project was the package of performing arts called tourism of Sundanese angklung or wisata angklung Sunda. Angklung Sunda or Sundanese angklung has a pentatonic scale (Masunah, 2003). The package contains traditional children’s games, jaipongan dance, celempungan, sisingaan, and angklung music (Masunah, 2012). The package of the performing arts was performed in one and half hour in front of senventy tourists on October 7, 2011. The stage was a site specific in front of the Walini’s restaurant in the Village of Ciater. The tourists were the participants who attended Asian Young Composers organized by Goethe Institute and Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia. Referring to level of categorizations of events offered by Donald Getz & Stephan J. Page (2016), performing arts event in Ciater is categorized as local event. It is different from national or international event which can attract international tourists. Nevertheless, the tourists who watched wisata angklung Sunda responded positively in terms of variation and attractiveness of performing arts. The local community felt satisfied and proud of their potential, because the tourists appreciate their performing arts and culture.

In 2012, the lecturers of UPI did the same project in Cibeusi (Milyartini, et.al., 2012). The Cibeusi village is the neighbouring village of Ciater. The local community and the school of Cibeusi Village provide space for building the project and training people, as well as performing the arts tourism project. Through the project, community participated actively either as performers or as the facilitators. However, the production of performing arts as arts tourism event in Ciater and Cibeusi, could not continue because no local’s people can manage this production to sustain the performance for the tourism event regularly.

In the book Promoting Community Change, Homan (2011) identifies three main aspects to promote community change which are capacity building, asset building, and ownership. What we have done from year 2010 to year 2012 in Ciater and Cibeusi Villages in Subang, were capacity building and asset building to make a package of performing arts. However, at that time, we did not consider the owners of those tourist site and attractions. The owner can be an individual or an organization or a community who can manage the activity and receive the benefit of it. The owner should manage all kinds of organization, promotion, and attraction in order to get benefit.  Like Saung Angklung Udjo (SAU) foundation in Bandung, SAU is a tourist destination and using angklung and performing arts as the main attraction.  The Foundattion of SAU is the owner of angklung performance in Padasuka, Bandung. The local event tourism in SAU is well-managed so that it has become regular event. Narawati (2009) states that arts tourism in SAU has economic, social, and cultural effects to the local community. Therefore, the following research and community service program, should start working with the community to decide who will be the owner of those arts’ tourism events.

BUILDING OWNERSHIP FOR ARTS TOURISM EVENT
In 2017 - 2019, we collaborated with young artists namely LIKA 04 Arts Community from Subang, they were eager to work collaboratively with the researchers (Masunah, Nugraheni, Sunaryo, 2021). LIKA 04 arts community actually have been listed in the Ministry of Law and Human Right Nomor 19, February 17, 2017. Therefore, in 2017 the researchers empowered the Lika 04 Arts Community in Subang to create a package of performing arts using arts tourism concept. The Lika 04 Arts Community choose the Cibuluh Village, because Cibuluh have developed a tourist destination coordinated by Badan Usaha Milik Desa (BUMDES) or the Board of Village Entrepreneurship. We assumed that the owner of regular arts tourism events is Lika 04 Arts Community in coordination with the board of unit of tourism in BUMDES of Cibuluh.

Cibuluh Village is located in Tanjungsiang subdistrict, the North of Subang, just 30 Km from the hot springs’ tourist destination in Ciater Village, West Java and 37 Km from the Subang City. Since year 2016, the Cibuluh Village have been declared as a tourism village. Under BUMDES coordination, there are some people who had been pointed to manage the tourism unit. The people have developed a model of tourist destination such as Saung Mulan, Tepas Seuweu, Muara of Seven Rivers Festival, and Kampung Budaya Bolang. Saung Mulan is defined as the cabin (Saung) for seeing the Moon at night (Mulan). This Saung Mulan area (Figure 1) has a unique environment because the Tampomas Mountain can be viewed as the background of the village. The visitors can see the sunrise in the morning, and they can see moonlight at night. The owner of Saung Mulan is the person who is responsible for unit of tourism in BUMDES of Cibuluh. The owner provides hospitality such as houses for people to rent, local culinary, and outdoor space with chairs to be seated.


Tepas Seuweu is defined as Terras where people can hang out. This is located about 500 meters from Saung Mulan. Tepas Seuweu is different from Saung Mulan. In front of Tepas Seuwe location is a ricefield where the people can see the activities of farmers in the rice field. In the Tepas seuweu area (Figure 2), there is a stage for performance, and outdoor space for people to sit and watch the performance, beside the stage, there is a small kios and small cabin without chairs where people can seat and hangout.

Muara Seven Rivers is located in the Southern area of this village, where the director of BUMDES has conducted the Seven Rivers Festival each year since 2016. To promote the tourist destinations, they have worked with Yayasan Bale Bandung, a foundation who has vision to promote tourist destination.

The other community in Cibuluh, namely Hong Community led by Zaini Alief, has developed a model of tourist attraction using traditional games and Sundanese folklore which is called Kampung Budaya Bolang or Bolang Cultural Community (Figure 3). Bolang is the name of the area of community who live in Cibuluh Village. Kampung Bolang tourist destination is located in front of Tepas Seuweu area. There is the area where children can perform traditional game in the outdoor specific site located in between rice field and the river. In terms of participation in tourism development, the people Cibuluh Village is the highest, the missing thing is regular performing arts event.

Therefore, the LIKA 04 Arts Community who stay out of the Cibuluh Village in Subang, work together with the people in Cibuluh in coordination with Unit of Tourism of BUMDES to make a package of performing arts to be performed in Tepas Seuweu location. The question is “How do the arts community developed a package of performing arts based on local wisdom in Cibuluh?”.

Through project-based research method (Stoeker, 2005), we diagnosed the problem, create the concept for arts tourism event, implementing the concept to make the product, and present the performing arts event. Lika 04 Arts Community identified young people and women who stay in Tepas Seuweu area. There are four young men and four young women, and the ladies who are working as farmers (women farmers). Young men and young women as well as the women farmers participated in the project of creating a package of performing arts. Then, we discussed with the people from the unit of tourism of BUMDES Cibuluh Village to identify the local wisdom for creating performing arts. The discussion comes up with the idea of identity of Cibuluh Village in creating bamboo music, because “Buluh” as the name of village means “bamboo.” Therefore, we used arts tourism concept by combining some repertoires based on bamboo’s instruments such as suling or Sundanese flute, kohkol or bamboo percussion, angklung, and dance. The researchers facilitated a set of Sundanese angklung (bamboo music). The Lika 04 Arts Community worked together with the people in Cibuluh to implement the concept of arts tourism offered by Soedarsono (2002). The result is a package of performing arts based on the local wisdom in Subang which is called “Rampak Buluh”.

“Rampak Buluh” consisted of four repertoires such as helaran with angklung and toleat, the music bamboo percussion on the bridge, tarawangsa dance, and angklung music. Helaran is the performance which is presented on the way where the musicians bring and play their bamboo music instruments such as, angklung, suling or toleat, and kohkol. The musicians played the song “tokecang”. The music percussion like kohkol played by young men in the Tepas Seuweu area and on the bridge made from bamboo. The Bamboo music were played on the side of the bridge, and the players stood on the bamboo bridge. The players hit the bamboo instruments with stick made also from bamboo. The players wore black pants and white t-shirts and covered their head with iket. Tarawangsa dance is a creation dance accompanied by the Tarawangsa music. This dance was performed by a couple, yang men and young girl, representing a love story of the rice Goddes. The female dancer wore a pabric with selendang. Her hair was styled in a traditional bun called sanggul, while the male wore black pants and without t-shirt. In the beginning of the performance, the male dancer did not wear a mask, but in the middle of the performance he wore a mask from Cirebon, Klana. This dance represented their thanks to God who have blessed their lives. Angklung music was performed by the women farmers. The women played the Sundanese Song “Kacang Buncis” and “Es Lilin”.

In addition of “Rampak Buluh,” there is Jaipongan performance. Some musicians and the singer of Jaipongan was designed in the tepas seuweu stage. The music gamelan of Jaipongan is familiar in Subang, the rhythme of Kendang stimulated the people to dance. There is no specific dancer for this stage, the audiences could dance if they wanted to.

To evaluate the project, Lika 04 Arts Community invited 50 students from the vocational school in Subang who took their roles as tourists and watched the performance in November 18, 2017. They gave some responses to the performing arts created by Lika 04 Arts Community. The researchers and the Lika 04 Arts Community as well as the persons in charge as a unit of tourism in BUMDES Cibuluh Village evaluated the project in order to sustain the performance as local tourism event. However, Lika 04 Arts Community can’t be the owner because they stay out of Cibuluh and did not continue working in Cibuluh. Fortunately, the women farmers take over responsibility to perform angklung regularly. In the case of Subang, women have a potential to manage local event in the Tourism Village. During the day, the women worked in the ricefield, at night they were eagar to practice angklung music. Also, Nurendra Setya Pamungkas (2013) informed the research that the women in Bejiharjo, Gunungkidul Yogyakarta built the organization of traditional music for arts tourism event.

The women farmers in Cibuluh have become a group of entrepreneurs who perform and received some benefits. In addition, they performed in weddings or governmental events. They also collaborate with Kampung Budaya Bolang, Hong Community, to be practiced and performed angklung music regularly. However, since 2020 when pandemic Covid-19 have attracted Indonesia, all performing arts activities have been stopped.

According to Gianna Moscardo (2008), community participation is one of aspects of community-based tourism (CBT) concept. Oliver Mtapuri & Andrea Giampiccoli (2016) discussed about CBT as a strategy of community development through tourism sectors. This concept of CBT was implemented in Ciater and Cibuluh Villages of Subang. Local community actively participate as performers and facilitators in Wisata angklung Sunda and Rampak Buluh, even though these performing arts events are still low economic income benefit. Ayuningsih, at. al. (2019: p. 8) states that the concept of tourism village emphazes sharing profit system rather than business oriented. The events in Ciater and Cibuluh have meaningful sosial and cultural benefits for tourism development.

CONCLUSION

The process and the result of creating performing arts as local arts tourism events in Subang is the evident of community participation. The ownership aspect of the production of arts tourism event are individuals who are passionate about the performing arts and willingness to manage the event and to share profit with the community. Therefore, local government support is important for managing arts tourism event in order to have economic benefits for community walfare. The other benefits about community participation in tourism village development can reduce urbanization from the villages to the cities and provide jobs for the community.


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