Research Article
Sheikh Mahabub Alam*
Corresponding Author: Sheikh Mahabub Alam, Director of Technical Operations, Australasian Water & Environmental Services (AWES) Pty Ltd, Sydney, Australia
Received: 22 June 2020; Revised: 29 June 2020 ; Accepted: 2 July 2020 Available Online: 03 February 2021
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Over 9 million tourists visited Australia between June 2018 and June 2019, the highest number ever recorded. Currently, the top six countries people visits Australia and they are: China, Nez Zealand, the United States, the United Kingdom, Japan and Singapore. Today the population Australia consist of more than 270 ethnic groups, every year VFR tourists come for pleasure and business enriching the Australian economy. International students inject more than $30 billion each. After years of steady growth in international tourism, all international and national tourism affiliated industries activity is abruptly down to nil from 20th March 2020 until the corona virus is effectively contained and a vaccine is found. But the Australian experts has managed the pandemic very well and have restricted the human casualty to a minimum of 102 life a record in the world. It appears that the virus has been successfully contained and we are doing well toward the road to recovery of COVID-19 virus. Worldwide the coronavirus is very much active and alive, and it is constantly changing epicenters from one country to another. Although it is uncertain about the time frame, but it is especially important to maintaining the critical mass of tourism services across the visitor economy throughout Australia. To ensure that when the virus is finally contained and normality resumes the world class tourism attractions are ready to offer the unforgettable visitors experience for inbound tourist for which we are very good at, especially which have been lost.
Keywords: Australia, Tourism, Affiliated Industry, COVID-19 Pandemic, Lockdown, Vaccine.

Abbreviations: GRC: Global Financial Crisis; GDP: Gross Domestic Product; MCG: Melbourne Cricket Ground; VFR: Visiting Friends and Relatives; TTF: Tourism and Transport Forum.

An unprecedented pandemic engulfed the entire world regardless of social condition, economic status, and superpower or developed status every country was brought down to their knees by the corona virus. Mercilessly the pandemic wiped out hundreds of thousands in the developed, developing, and underdeveloped world. With this pandemic the developed countries are more affected than the others except for Australia where the casualty was just 102 lives of which a significant number is from foreign cruise ship landed in Sydney and other states during March and April 2020. During that time confirmed cases of corona virus patients was 7333, recovered from 6852 and deaths 102 (Figure 1). Everybody says Australia is a lucky country, but I always say after coming to Australia permanently in 1992 with pride that Australia is the heaven on earth, and it is a tourism wonderland (Figure 2). In the financial year 2014/15, tourism represented 3.0% of Australia’s GDP (gross domestic product) contributing A$47.5 billion to the national economy. In the financial year 2018-19, Australia generated $60.8 billion in direct tourism GDP. This represents a growth of 3.5% per cent over the previous year – faster than the national GDP growth. In 2019, the contribution was a record $44.6 billion. Domestic tourism is a significant part of the tourism industry, representing 73% of the total direct tourism GDP. Tourism also directly employed 666, 000 Australians making up 5% of Australia’s workforce (Australian Tourism Industry Worth 2014) (Tourism Industry revenue growth in Australia 2018-19). Tourism Australia is the Australian Government Agency responsible for attracting international visitors to Australia, both for leisure and business events and to a lesser extent to domestic visitors (Tourism Australia 2020). The Organization is active 15 markets and activities including advertising, public relations and media programs, trade shows and industry programs, consumer promotions, online communications, and consumer research. While research has predominantly focused on understanding international consumer behavior, Tourism Australia has continued domestic research overs the last eight years. For example, In January 2020, Tourism Australia launched “Holiday Here This Year” as part of the National Bushfire Recovery Fund, to encourage Aussie to holiday in Australia and support bushfire recovery efforts. Tourism Australia with their slogan “Holiday Here This Year” is vigorously promoting Aussies to get out and see their own backyard.

The entire world was baffled, confused, and perplexed about the pandemic what is it? where it came from? and nobody had the slightest idea how to combat with this invisible deadly enemy. It took more than a month to define a name of this virus but by that time the virus has claimed more than 100,000 life and still counting. In the meantime, the expert found the name (COVID-19) and how it can be controlled to a reasonable number and that is maintaining social distancing, physical distancing and in the worst-case scenario lock down the community, area,

state or even the country depending on the severity of that nation, until a vaccine is found. If unsure if someone catches the virus with slight symptoms, he(she) needs to go on total isolation immediately and get tested asap to make sure that he/she is corona virus negative otherwise must go through recommended treatment until cure and get tested again until that person is virus negative. As of today (20 June, 2020) the rolling update of corona virus cases 8506 107, corona virus claimed worldwide 455 231+ life and counting. Worldwide the corona virus is very much active and alive and it is constantly changing epicenters from one state to the next, from one country to another and at present Brazil has recorded the highest number (WHO, 2020) of infection and who knows what is next? Australia swiftly went extremely hard on county wide lockdown because of Covid-19 impact and wends into complete isolation from outside world even enforced statewide isolation. This unprecedented step has successfully restricted at a cost of 102 human casualties due to corona virus pandemic (Figure 2). All social, economic activity work related activities were completely shut down. Millions of working people were out of job overnight. The Government declared the biggest stimulus package in history of federation. Measures total $213.6bn from the commonwealth, $11.8 bn from the states and 105bn in lending from the Reserve Bank and the federal government (Australian economic stimulus package, 2020). The $130bn support package announced on 31st March 2020 by Mr. Scott Morrison and his team is the largest plank is a raft of measures to keep Australians in the jobs and support those out of work, unprecedented in its scale. The economic activity came into an abrupt grinding halt, as an emergency measures everybody was locked down inside their home nobody could go outside unless they need to buy emergency food and medicine for few weeks. After one month of intense lockdown the government relaxing down the lockdown measures slowly progressing down towards normality. In the meantime, millions of people were tested, if someone becomes virus positive that person will go thorough self-isolation for two weeks and received the treatment simultaneously until cured. This extreme lockdown measures were amazingly effective and successful. The virus is now in the grip of medical expert and for nearly three weeks in a row Australia did not show any new cases of COVID-19 infections except in very few cases of corona virus positive cases in couple of school and their source has been identified and cleared but the country is not free from the disease yet. But the damage is already done, the government has funded the stimulus package from the future taxpayer fund. Yesterday (2 June 2020) the treasurer Mr. Josh Frydenberg has officially declared that after 30 years Australia is gone into recession. The hard work has begun to rebuild the country’s economy; the Australian government has predicted that the country needs at least next five years of hard work to bring the budget from the red if not more. The government is planning to open the airline route between Australia and New Zealand from 1st September 2020 and the international airline operation will be reviewed and gradually extended in the New Year sector by sector and case by case basis. Again, it all depends on the discovery of an effective COVID-19 vaccine. Most of world is busy in controlling the virus spread and everyday people are dying with corona virus infection. No one is ruling out a second wave of attack of the same virus. The WHO (world health organization) organization has warned that the virus is going to stay for a long time may be in a modified less lethal form.
Australia is a natural wonder (Figure 3); everyone says it is a lucky country bur the author believe that Australia is a heaven on the earth. It is a continent and yet the population is quite small only 24.99 million people according to 2018 census (Australian Population, 2018). The weather is unbelievably friendly. In the book there are four seasons, and, in every month, there is a lot to see and enjoy in terms of tourism. The infrastructure, the roads, the accommodation, and the amusements around the tourist attractions are all world class and, in some cases, they are best in the world. Even the winter months which covers the months of June, July, and August, the temperature seldom foes to zero and not much rain and there is plenty of tourism attractions to see and enjoy, regardless of age every there is something for everyone to participate, relax and enjoy.

Once you are in Sydney you must take a day trip to see the beauty of Canberra (Figure 4). Everyone visits the Federal Parliament House (Figure 5), a nice piece of architecture to enjoy. Alongside there are plenty to see International Flower show, War memorial and Australian Mint (the money machine and many others).

Australia’s economy benefits significantly from tourism, contributing significantly in jobs growth, investment, and community development. In the financial year 2018-19 (Australian Tourism Industry Worth, 2014) (Tourism Industry revenue growth in Australia, 2018-19). Australia generated $60.8 billion in direct tourism GDP. Tourism is continuing to be a driver of growth for the Australian economy, with domestic and international tourism spend totaling $122 billion in 2018-19.


NSW is the oldest and most populous state of Australia and there is a lot to do and enjoy many attractions. There are so many natural attractions scattered around NSW and some of them (Destination NSW, Sydney, 2013) are: Blue Mountain, Byron Bay, Coffs Harbour, Lord Howe Island, Snowy Mountain and many more. The capital Sydney (Figure 6) is full of tourism surprises. The top-rated tourism attractions (Karen, 2019) are the iconic Sydney Opera House, the world-famous Sydney Harbor Bridge (Figure 7), The Darling Harbor, The Bondi Beach Sydney (and more than a dozens of top rated beaches in the greater Sydney area), The Taronga Zoo, The Luna Park, The Rocks, Harbor Cruises from Circular Quay, Darling harbor, The Royal Botanic Garden, The Sydney Tower Eye, Barangaroo Reserve, Newly Installed Tram Lines at George Street, Hyde Park, Art Gallery of NSW, Chinatown, Australian Museum, Capitol and State Theatre.

Victoria (Figure 8) is vibrant, elegant, multicultural and the greenest state of Australia (Top attraction in Victoria and Melbourne, 2020). Victorian capital Melbourne (Jocelyn & Karen, 2020) is number two most livable city in the world. There are so many attractions in the category of: Nature & Parks; Historic Sites; Waterfalls; Day trips: Wildlife areas; Farms and Water & Amusement Park. Phillip Island is incredibly famous for penguin watching.

Federation Square (Figure 9) voted as number one tourist attraction in Melbourne. Other tourist attractions are The Australian Arts and the Australian Centre for the moving Image is also housed in the federation square. There are many other tourist attractions equally popular to the visitors and some of them are: The Iconic MCG; Eureka Skydeck; St. Paul’s Cathedral; Werribee Open Range Zoo; The Dandenong Range; City Circle Tram; Melbourne Zoo; Melbourne Royal Botanic Garden; National Gallery of Victoria; The Shrine of Remembrance.


World’s best mangoes grows in Queensland (Figure 10). The best time to visit Queensland (Karen, 2020) are the driest winter months between June and October. Brisbane is rightly famous for its amazing climate that is near perfect all year round. World best and longest “Great Barrier Reef” (Figure 11) stretches along 2300 kilometers of the Queensland Coast. Other tourist attractions are: City of Cairns (a popular tourist destination); Port Douglas;

Noosa Heads and Sunshine Coast; Lamington National Park; Townsville and Magnetic Island; Cape York Peninsula & the Torres Straight Island; Kuranda Scenic.

State, Brisbane winding along the Brisbane River (Jocelyn & Keren, 2020). Most popular visitor attraction in Brisbane are “Lone Pine Kuala Sanctuary” and shorted other attraction are: The Cultural Precinct; Brisbane Botanic Gardens Mount Coot-tha; Queensland Art Gallery & Gallery of Modern Art; South Bank; River Cruises; Queen Street Mall; Story Bridge Adventure Climb; Moreton Island Day Trip; Museum of Brisbane; Railway and Skyrail rainforest Cableway; Whitsundays Islands (a cluster of 74 island in dazzling blue water); Gold Coast Theme Park; Fraser Island; Australia Zoo, Sunshine Coast; Daintree National Park (World Heritage Listed).


Western Australia (Karen, 2020) (Figure 12) occupies a third of the continent. The following are the shorted attractions from many others: The Margaret Rivers; Broome; Cruise on a Jet Boat through the Horizontal Falls; Relax on Rottnest Island; Explore Esperance Bay and Cote Le Grand National Park;

Purnululu (Bangle Bangle) National Park, The Kimberley; Karijini National Park; Feed the Dolphins at Monkey Mia; The Pinnacles, Nambung National Park; Drive the Gibb River Road in the Kimberley; Wave Rock; and Cape to Cape Track. The endless beauty of the capital Perthis located along the meander of Swan River (Karen, 2020). The capital of western Australia is packed with many other wonders and just to mention a few are: Kings Park and Botanic Garden; Swan River Valley; The Beaches (Pine Fringed Cottesloe Beach, Port Beach, City Beach and others); The Perth Mint; Perth Zoo; Hillary’s Boat Harbor; The Bell Tower; Scitech; St. Mary’s Cathedral; Aviation Heritage Museum but the iconic tourist attraction is the UNESCO World Heritage–listed Ningaloo Reef (Figure 13), arguably the best place on Earth is to swim with whale sharks. The Ningaloo Reef is the world’s largest fringing reef. It extends for about 260 km, an astounding diversity of marine life. Marine life includes manta rays, dugongs, white sharks, humpback whale, turtle and more than 500 species of fish and 300 species of corals.


The sprawling top-class tourism attractions popular vote made Kangaroo Island (Figure 14) as number one tourist attractions. But the following attractions wilderness, stunning coastline, and stark desert beauty of South Australia have captured the imagination of artists and adventurers (Karen, 2019). The state capital Adelaide city map (Figure 15) gives a clear picture of natural wonders. Out of all these were second to none: Barossa Valley; Clare Valley; Flinders Range; Fleurien Peninsula; Eyre Peninsula; Murray River; Mount Gambier; Innes National Park, York Peninsula; Cooper Pedy and many other attractions.

Adelaide is elegant and refined, it sits between the rugged south coast of Australia and the foothills of the Mount Lofty Range and is locater around the Torrens River (Karen, 2020). The following few short-listed attractions are

mentioned below out of many others: North Terrace; Adelaide Botanic Gardens; Art Gallery of South Australia; Take a tour of Adelaide Oval; South Australia Museum; Adelaide Zoo; Cleland wildlife Park; Adelaide festival Centre; Ayers Historic House Museum; Victoria Square (at the heart of the city, the revamped Victoria Square, a charming fountain and Adelaide Central Market, a Statue of Queen Victoria and others); Port Adelaide; Barossa Valley & Clare Valley Day Trip; Fleurien Peninsula Day Trip; Hahndorf Day Trip.

The only Island state of Australia is Tasmania (Karen, 2020). or “Tassie” (Figure 16). Thousands of tourists visit the island to breath in sterile Tasmania. Almost half of Tasmania’s land mass lies in national park and World Heritage Areas. Bizarre wildlife from real life Tasmanian devils to the extinct thylacine, the Tasmanian Tiger attracts lot of visitors. Tasmania is also a foodie’s delight. The most fascinating precinct is “Cradle Mountain-lake, St. Clair National Park” (Figure 17) is the Jewel in the crown of the state’s many natural wonders and is rated the number one by popular choice by visitors. And other short-listed attractions are: Port Arthur Historic Site; Freycinet National Park; Tasman National Park; Hike the Three Capes Track; Cataract Gorge, Launceston; Salamanca Place; Bruny Island; Mona Museum and Art Gallery; Mount Field National Park; Franklin Gordon Wild Rivers National Park; Richmond, Climb “The Net”; and many more. Hobart (Karen, 2020). the Capital of Tasmania is Nestle at the foot of kunanyi/Mount Wellington along the estuary of the Derwent River. Spectacular views from the Summit of kunanyi/Mount Welling is best attraction of the Capital, Hobart; Some other popular attractions are: Salamanca Place and Salamanca Market; MONA: Museum of Old and Nee Art; Stroll along the Battery Point Sculpture Trail; Royal Tasmanian Botanical Gardens; Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery; North Hobart’s Restaurant Strip and Runnymede; Tasman Bridge; St. David’s Cathedral; Mawson’s Huts Replica Museum; and Theatre Royal and hanging out at a waterfront café or restaurant is one of the top things to do in the port city of Hobart.


Northern Territory (Figure 18), a land of stark beauty, sacred aboriginal sites- and space, and the same natural features enabled the local aboriginal people to preserve the traditional way of life (Karen, 2019). The endless beauty of Northern territory is abridged from many other attractions are Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park (Figure 19); Kakadu National Park; Darwin; Nitmiluk National Park; Litchfield National Park; Kings Canyon (Watarrka National Park); Finke Gorge National Park; Alice Springs; Karlu Karlu (Devil’s Marble Conservation Reserve); Simpson Gap (MacDonnell National Park); Tiwi Island.

Darwin the capital of Northern Territory has the prehistoric landscape of Australia. The prehistoric landscape of Kakadu and Litchfield National Park is incredibly famous geologically. Some of the famous attractions in Darwin (Karen, 2019). is presented here are: Museum and Art Gallery of Northern Territory; Mindil Beach Sunset Market; Stokes Hill Wharf (Darwin Wharf Precinct); Sunset Dinner Cruise; Jumping Crocodile Cruise on the Adelaide River; Defense of Darwin Experience; Mary River Wetland Cruise; Crocosaurus Cove; Day trip to Tiwi Island; George Brown Darwin Botanic Gardens; Darwin Aviation Museum; Chinese Temple and Museum Chung Wah; Territory Wildlife Park; and Aquascene. In Darwin itself, do not miss the chance to smile at a crocodile (Tom, 2018). at Crocosaurus Cove (Figure 20) and watch the sun sink into the Timor Sea.

Safety and security, value for money and world class nature and wildlife are the most important drivers for destination choice to Australian travelers (Tourism Australia, 2020). Research conducted by Tourism Australia has found out the most the most important elements of tourism that Australian tourists expect when they visit other countries including: 1. Enjoy escaping day-to-day life when travelling and their number is staggering 93%; 2. Travel to enrich their knowledge about foreign culture and tradition and makes them better person they constitute to about 92%; 3. Like to get a taste for local cuisine, it is the best opportunity to taste the most authentic cuisine that prevails in the original soil generation after generation that category is staggering 92%; 4. The inherent desire of human to see the unknown, to explore secrets and reveal the mysterious culture, tradition of foreign land and get immense pleasure while people are holidaying and make them richer and that category is 91%; 5. People travel to become more open-minded, more accommodating, more tolerant to foreign culture.

The Prime Minister Mr. Scott Morrison announced that from 20th March 2020 no foreign travelers can now enter Australia, as it locks down its borders due to corona virus pandemic. The strict new border measures mean all-noncitizens and non-residents are now banned from arriving. That means all tourism activities ceased completely. On top the individual state and territory have imposed their own individual ban from interstate travel and were enforced very strictly. For example, resident of NSW cannot travel to Queensland and other state &territories or vice versa. From March 2020 estimated monthly average loss in total tourism receipts from all inbound market is potentially 2.00b on a per month basis. If we take the estimate from TTF Australian tourism loss (from March - July 2020) = 10.00b (Table 1). Currently the top six countries people visit Australia and they are China, New Zealand, the United States, the United Kingdom, Japan, and Singapore. China is Australia’s largest inbound market, with just under 1.5 m arrivals (for all purposes) for the year to November 2019. More importantly than just visitor numbers, China represents 12.3b in annual tourism receipts to Australia (Tourism &Transport Forum, 2020). Representing nearly 33% of all tourism receipts (as of May 2019).

Another important group is international student (Figure 21) and they inject more than $30 billion each year and support 130,000 Australian jobs. Australia’s world class international education sector hosted a record 690,00 international student in the last year who paid tuition fees and spent money on living cost (Education Data of Australian, 2020). After years of steady growth in international tourism, VFR, and international education sectors.
The other important aspect of inbound tourism is the visit of VFR. Today the population Australia consist of more than 270 ethnic groups, one of highest in the western world.  Every year friends and relatives of many ethnic group comes to Australia to enjoy the wonders of these wonderland. According to tourism research Australia the VFR market is underestimated. The size of VFR visitor in Australia is around 48% of Australia’s total overnight tourism market (Backer & Hay, 2015). The proportion of VFR travelers staying in commercial accommodation can be substantial as a conservative average figure based on primary research 20% of VFR stay in commercial accommodation bur it is not a measure of the size by volume of VFR travel.

If all the restriction is uplifted in all states and territories in July 2020 then domestic travel will resume so is domestic tourism begins to generate revenue July. If we do not can a second wave of corona virus then the domestic tourism will be back to the full capacity by the end of August 2020 boosting revenue generation. Apart from trans-Tasman travel the international flight operation is banned until September 2020. Hopefully, international flight operation to and from Australia will hopefully begin early part of next year 2021 provided an effective corona virus vaccine is readily available for all the countries of the world.

The National Cabinet on 8 May 2020 agreed to a three-step roadmap and National Framework to achieve a COVID safe economy (Australian economic stimulus package, 2020). Australian prime minister Mr. Scott Morrison has detailed a gradual opening of Australian society with the timing of three-stages to be determined by the states and territories. Prime Minister Mr. Scott Morrison and Chief Medical Officer, Dr. Brendon Murphy, have laid out a three–step plan to reopen Australia after the corona virus crisis shutdown. They hoped the last step (step-three) could be achieved by July 2010. But it would be up to the states and territory when they are moved from one step to the next. The Australian will have to wait several weeks before they can work from the office full time but eating out at a restaurant or café will be one of the first thing people will able to do in the next few weeks. In this plan we walk before we run. There will be outbreak and setback. No one is perfect, everyone is doing their best.

Step 1.
The important first small steps – connect with friends and family. Allowing non-work gatherings up to 10 people. Up to 5 visitors at home in addition to normal residents. Work from home if it works for you and your employer. Workplaces develop a COVID Safe plan. Avoid public transport in peak hour.

Step 2.
Building on slightly larger gathering of up to 20 people. States and territories may allow larger number in some circumstances. Work from home if it works for you and your employer. Workplaces develop a COVID Safe plan. Avoid public transport in peak hour. From Friday (12 June 2020) step-2 applies to NSW. Author lives in NSW.

Step 3.
A commitment to reopening of business and the community with minimal restrictions but underpinned by COVID Safe ways of living. All gathering must follow 4 square meters rule per person, people should stay 1.5m apart when possible, and people should stay at home if unwell get tested. Return to workplace. Workplaces develop a COVID Safe plan. Avoid public transport in peak hour.

3-step framework for a COVID Safe Australia gave a detail plan for the following services: Retail & Sales, Café & Restaurants, Entertainment & Amusement Venues, Sport & Recreation, Accommodation, Wedding, Funerals & Religious Services, Hair & Beauty Services and Domestic Travel.
To ensure the tourism industry bounces back from the corona virus Pandemic in a sustainable manner, Tourism Australia will play a vital role in reestablishing aviation routes between Australia and the key markets through commercial partnerships. Tourism Australia intents to lead a team Australia approach with the involvement of airports, State and Territory Tourism Organization, Austrade, the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, the Department of Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development and communications and the Department of Home Affairs.

The bar chart (Figure 22) illustrates the percentage change year on year for both direct tourism gross domestic product in Australia and compared to the percentage change each year for Australia GDP overall. The impact of the Sydney Olympics for tourism, the SARS Pandemic, the GFC are clearly visible (Tourism & Transport Forum, 2020). Currently a complete ban on non-citizens and non-residents will be banned from arriving in Australia from 9:00 pm Friday (20th March, 2020) Australian who returns from overseas will go through mandatory self-isolation in designated hotels free of charge. This implies no guests to hotels, travel agents shut completely, and tour operators ceased their operation and no more sightseeing through Sydney harbor or anywhere in the country in fact the country’s tourism sector lost its entire revenue. If everything goes in plan the government will introduce unrestricted domestic flight operation from 1st July, 2020 and from 1st September, 2020 Trans-Tasman international flight will resume with a limited number of flights. This will open the domestic tourism market as well as international tourism between Australian and New Zealand. The government will monitor and review the corona virus periodically and will take the best decision for the country. The Australian government has no plan to introduce overseas flight operation until the end of 2020 or until a vaccine for covid-19 is obtained and is freely available around the globe or until it is safe to invite inbound visitor. Under the circumstances it would be fair to say that revenue from international tourism during February-June 2020 is negligible. The true picture will become available during July 2021.


Australia is a heaven for inbound tourism. Everyone loves to spend some quality time in Australia. The climatic conditions are so friendly that that those who came to Australia once, they fall in love with Australian way of life, picturesque landscape and the strategic positioning of large-scale cities like Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Adelaide, and Hobart including Canberra and Darwin and there are so much see and enjoy in every city that want to keep coming every often. The tourism infrastructure is one of the best in the world. Australia is world famous for its natural wonders and its wide-open spaces, its beaches, Deserts, “the bush” and “the outback” are fascinating. Australia is one of the world’s most highly urbanized countries; it is well known to the outside world for the attractions of its large-scale cities. Tourism attractions of these mega cities are very well presented to the visitor and are spread in captivating locations all over the country. Easy access to all these attractions, activities, accommodation, and amenities makes the tourist very well satisfied. The fact is because of COVID-19 pandemic everybody is locked inside their house and this story applies to 216 country, areas, or territories with crisis globally therefore tourism industry of every country is worst hit and tourism revenue is almost nil in Australia. The world’s most advanced and powerful countries including Australia are tirelessly trying to find a vaccine for COVID-19 pandemic, and they are hopeful by the end of 2020 or early 2021 the vaccine will be readily available to every corner of the world. Soon after that the tourism Australia will bounce back, the infrastructures and amenities for people’s convenience, enjoyment, comfort are ready to well come the visitors again. Until then policy makers will continue to walk on a tight rope and physical distancing and testing, tracking, tracing, and isolating will be the main element to fight the spread of the virus. The full extent of the economic impact of corona virus will not be known for some time until detailed sectorial surveys are able to confirm direct and indirect impacts which have occurred and the quantification of these survey results. In the interim, however, the risk of a contracted visitor economy is very real- and the-time frame for recovery is still uncertain.
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