WB Bozegha* 
Corresponding Author: WB Bozegha, Numeration Science Literature Development Research Project (NSLDRP), YenizueGene, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria 
Received: August 05, 2019; Accepted: August 09, 2019; 
Citation: Bozegha WB. (2020) A Base4 AUGC NeoDigibreed Littered with Carcasses: The Aftermath of Genetic Code Exploration. J Microbiol Microb Infect, 2(1): 4655. 
Copyrights: ©2020 Bozegha WB. This is an openaccess article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. 
Statement
of the problem: The molecular biologists’
observation in 1953 that the sequence of the RNA four bases; Adenine, Uracil,
Guanine, Cytosine (A, U, G, C) in the nucleus of a cell influenced the sequence
of the 20 amino acids of protein in the cellular cytoplasm, as a natural
example of the input/output multiplicative replication system in computational
combinatorics, calls for base 4 neodigibreed construction with an input set of
the RNA four bases A, U, G, C, as an indirect source of permutations of 4 from
4 of the four RNA bases.
Method
and theoretical orientation: The four RNA bases A,
U, G, C in a sequence are used as input set in base 4 neodigibreed
construction by successive collateral posting to digitality level 4 terminal,
wherein 256 quadruplets reside. Distinction between permutation quadruplets and
nonpermutation quadruplets in terms of isodigitation is made amongst the 256
quadruplets to the effect of isolating nonisodigitated permutation quadruplets
by the deletion of nonpermutation quadruplets characterized by isodigitation.
Finding:
24 permutation quadruplets free from isodigitation
emerged on one side of the separation to yield the 24 quadruplet genetic code
as the desired outcome of the exploration, while 232 nonpermutation
quadruplets on the side of isodigitation got deleted out of the 256 quadruplets
at digitality level 4 in accordance with the demand of the indirect source of
derivation of the genetic code from base 4 AUGC neodigibreed at digitality 4.
Conclusion
and significance: The 24 permutation, non
isodigitated quadruplets surviving the isodigitationbased deletion of the base
4 neodigibreed 256 quadruplets consequently represent the fabric of the true
genetic code of 24 permutation quadruplet codons as sourced from the base 4
neodigibreed indirect method of derivation. This 24 quadruplet genetic code
enjoys collinearity with a protein type of 20 amino acids, with four spare
quadruplets for four time and place based start/stop control signals during
protein synthesis.
Recommendation: This combinatorically fit and precise genetic code of 24 quadruplet
codons is recommended to experimental experts in molecular biology for spelling
in order to render it fit for adoption in coding application in protein
synthesis studies.
Keywords: Isodigitation, Nonisodigitation, Permutation, Quadruplets,
Separation
INTRODUCTION
Both the
digibreed with a zeroincluded input set/basestrength of numerals and the
neodigibreed of zeroless input set/base strength of letters are known as the
habitat of the entire community of integral numbers/digitisms. Just as water is
the habitat of fish, no matter the species; so is the digibreed/neodigibreed
the habitat of integral numbers/digitism, no matter the variety [1].
However, the composition of the populace is
seen differently by different prospectors of numbers/digitisms [2]: the number
theorists see it as a mixture of odd and even numbers, with the odd unfolding
prime numbers and the even also unfolding super even numbers. The
numerationists see additional indigenes such as dittodigital, nonary and
palindromic numbers and other laminated numbers; while the combinatorists see
it as a mixture of permutations and nonpermutations only. So when these number
prospectors of diverse interests go to exploit the digibreed/neodigibreed,
DEFINITIONS, ILLUSTRATIONS AND ANNOTATIONS
Definitions
Carcasses: Worthless
remains and discarded.
Combination: A group of
things chosen from a larger number of dissimilar things without regard to order
in the group.
Digitism: Digital
composition of a number or the set of letters in code words.
Isodigitism: Is the
condition in a digitism whereby one or more digits/letters are repeated.
Deisodigitation: Is the
elimination or removal of digitisms affected by isodigitism.
Digibreed: Is number
population in sequence to a specified digitality generated by successive
collateral posting of a given base strength in which zero is included.
Digitality: Is number of
digits in a number or letters in digitism.
Neodigibreed: Is a
digibreed whose basestrength is zeroless and consists of letters or numerals.
Permutations: Is anyone of
the possible dissimilar things taken all (fullset selection) or some (subset
selection) at a time can be arranged in which order is important.
ILLUSTRATIONS
Super even
numbers include 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64…They are represented by the domiciliary
formula 2^{n}, where n ≥ 1 and integral. The somatic ratio of a
sequence of them is 2n. Their progression is easily freed from the enfolding
parent even number sequence by the formula where n/21, where n is the super
even number in flight, and n/21 is the flight interserial that is the over
flight pace to reach the next super even number. The casualties here are the
even numbers [3].
Dittodigital
numbers
At digitality 4, they run from 0001 through
5050 to 9999. In numeration literature they are called Titus numbers, named
after a friend of the author.
Nonary numbers
At digitality
4, they run from 0099 through 1188 to 9900. In numeration literature they are
called Gilbert numbers, named after a relation of the author.
Palindromic numbers
Examples
include 0990, 1881…7227, 9009. They retain their magnitude in opposite views.
Their other two names are laminated numbers and sandwich numbers.
All the above
and many more categories of numbers reside in the digibreed as a matter of
nativity.
Annotations
Input/output format: In
the first place, divine creation is the supreme example of the input/output
format. The spoken word of God as input, and the resulting creation, the
manifestation of matter, as the output material in the form of quantity (seen
or unseen). It is the infrastructure for permutations and combinations. The
genetic code is a striking natural example of a quantitative system featuring
the input/output format and goes along with permutations in productivity and textural
identity characterized by nonisodigitism. Input/output format is patronized by
procreation in animal and plant life. Thus yam planted and yam harvested are
the same in kind [4].
Other
characteristics include sameness of size of input set digitism and output
material digitism, e.g. mango fruit harvested. In permutation, nonisodigital
input set must yield nonisodigital output material digitisms. Also there is
always a multiplication in numerical quantity in output relative to the input
set either in terms of size (yam) or number (grains) and in permutations,
factorial n! For input set of n units (digits), i.e., nPn=n! accompanied by
diversification of the input set sequence.
Textural subpopulations of numbers (digitisms)
The general
number population can be subdivided into three subpopulations on textural
basis: namely, total isodigitals, partial isodigitals and nonisodigitals.
In total isodigitals, all the digits of
digitism are repetitions of one particular digit, e.g. 1111, 2222, 33. In
partial isodigitals, some of the digits of digitism are repetitions of one or
more digits, e.g. 5050, 122, 211 or the series 1, 10, 100, 1000…
The nonisodigitals have no repetition of any
digits in their digitisms, e.g. 12, 314, 4321. A number of these textural subpopulations
of numbers serve special interests in Numeration and Combinatorics. For
instance, the partial isodigital series 1, 10, 100, 1000…known as Incremental
Digitality Counts (IDCs) in Numeration are used in meridian place location and
as meridian place values in the organization of the entire number population of
whatever basestrength. Similarly, the nonisodigital subpopulation of numbers
is what combinatorics uses in fixing or computing the factorial complements for
permutations and combinations for all specifications of set (n) and selection
(r) and _{4}G_{4}, i.e., fullset selection 4 for genetic code
construction. So the texture of the fabric of the true genetic code as an
example of permutation can only be made up of nonisodigital formations of A, U,
G, C per formation and not otherwise as in the 64 triplet degenerate code which
includes 40 isodigital triplets (4 total and 36 partial) [5].
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Materials
The materials
consist of the four RNA nucleotide bases A, U, G, C. The method employs base
crossing involving successive collateral posting of the four bases in elongated
Punnett Square to digitality level 4 in parity with the input set 4 in
digitality for maturity of output material as shown in Chart 1 at digitality 4 between lines 2285, which represents a
neodigibreed of zeroless base 4 strength.
The genetic
code exploration proper is only centred in digitality 4 region wherein the
nonpermutations are all crossed out to leave a residue of 24 quadruplet
permutation codons for the structure of the true natural genetic code designed
for protein synthesis. Nevertheless, nonpermutations in the premature
digitalities 2 and 3 regions are also crossed out, thereby bringing carcasses
that litter the length and breadth of the entire neodigibreed that is the
treasuretrove of the true genetic code.
Method
The method comprises implanting a sequence of
the four nucleotide bases AUGC as input set in a Punnett Square Chart 1 and carrying out successive
collateral posting until digitality 4 is accomplished. Digitisms with repeated
letters (bases) are identified as nonpermutations in digitality 4 as well as
the premature digitalities of 2 and 3 and are crossed out as seen in Chart 1. This leaves a residue of
permutations: 24 quadruplets in digitality 4 and also 24 triplets in digitality
3 and 12 doublets in digitality 2.
The latter two categories being premature are
discarded, so that only the 24 permutation quadruplets of digitality 4 are
gathered as the treasure of the genetic code exploration in the neodigibreed
as depicted in Chart 1. Base 4 A, U,
G, C neodigibreed under exploitation for Genetic Code resource.
The 24 permutation quadruplets surviving
deisodigitation of digitality level 4 in Chart
1 represent the 24 quadruplet genetic code as presented in Table 1.
The outcome of deisodigitation process
carried out on digitality level 4 of Chart
2 in search of the genetic code is shown in Table 2.
The value of c for the population of
nonpermutation formations at each digitality level (d) can be deduced thus:
By transposition of eqn (i) we have c = b^{d}– p.  (ii)
So that with eqn (ii)
At line 1, c = 4^{1}–_{4}P_{1}
= 4 – 4 = 0
At line 2, c = 4^{2} – _{4}P_{2}=
16 – 4x3=1612 = 4 duplexes (carcasses)
At line 3, c = 4^{3} – _{4}P_{3}
= 64 –4x3x2 =6424 = 40 triplets(carcasses)
At line 4, c = 4^{4} – _{4}P_{4}
= 256 – 4x3x2x1 = 25624 = 232 quadruplets (carcasses)
RESULTS
The results fall into four categories:
(a) 24
permutation quadruplets (i) from Table 2
comprising the genetic code and (ii) from Table
1 comprising the genetic code in a unique sequence being the
treasure
exploited from the base 4 AUGC neodigibreed exploration for the genetic code
at digitality level 4.
(b) Casualties
of deisodigitation process affecting numbers of nonpermutations.
(i) 232
quadruplets at digitality 4 (carcasses)
(ii) 40
triplets at digitality 3 (carcasses)
(iii) 4
duplexes at digitality 2 (carcasses)
(c) Numbers
of surviving waste products being immature and undersized permutations (i) 24
triplets at digitality 3,
And (ii) 12 duplexes at digitality 2.
(d) Formulary
c = b^{d}– nPr for a bonus
to academics where c=nonpermutations, the carcasses population in
neodigibreed
nPr=Permutations population
b^{d}=Population of baseb neodigibreed at
digitality (d)
Since base b neodigibreed population (b^{d})=permutations
(nPr) + nonpermutations (c)
DISCUSSION
Why the base 4 AUGC
neodigibreed is littered with carcasses?
The base 4 AUGC neodigibreed generated by
the successive collateral posting method in an elongated Punnett Square to the
mature digitality level 4 region is the home of all categories of integral
numbers of digitality 4. However, to the combinatorist prospecting for genetic
code treasure therein, it is only a mixture of permutations and
nonpermutations at each of the digitalities 2, 3 and 4. So he separates the
two categories by crossing out the nonpermutations along the way to leave a
residue of 24 permutation quadruplets in the mature digitality 4 region for
collection as the treasure found. Therefore, litters numbering 232 isodigital quadruplets
in Charts 1 and 2 represent the carcasses (worthless remains) of
nonpermutations in the region of exploitation for the true genetic code of 24
quadruplets.
Aftermath of genetic
code exploration
Genetic code exploration is more or less a
mining activity in the base 4 AUGC neodigibreed quarry which leaves the
landscape littered with 232 worthless remains of nonpermutations after
extraction of the genetic code treasure. The fully exploited base 4 AUGC
neodigibreed is evidently a degraded mining site. Why the genetic code
survived the decimation visited upon the AUGC Neodigibreed quadruplet
population by deisodigitation.
The 24quadruplet genetic code survived the
decimation, because of the following four reasons.
And as such, no agency whatsoever can thwart
it! This is reminiscent:
(i) The
genetic code is the product of the Creator’s substitution of four RNA bases
AUGC for twenty amino acids of protein for permutation synthesis for servicing
protein synthesis geared to protein type composition and protein type
proliferation and diversification with the objective of simplification and canalization
of why Jesus Christ
(Emmanuel, God with us, Matthew 1 v 23) as God’s substitute for mankind to
die
for the penalty for the sin of the world
(John
1 v 29), could not be killed in babyhood, when Herod ordered the killing of all
male children from two years downward in Bethlehem and in all the coasts
thereof in an attempt to eliminate baby Jesus Christ as a feared rival king
(Matthew 2), contrary to God’s gracious redemption plan for fallen man (Roman 5
v 12).
(ii) The
24quadruplet genetic code survived the deisodigitation, because it is a
sequence of permutation quadruplets which are free from isodigitation of any
kind.
(iii) The
genetic code has codon integrity for immunity against the decimation targeted
at isodigitation. Codon integrity means a codon has the complete set of four
base types as contained in the input set, the forebear. This again is
reminiscent of the token of blood on the doorposts of the houses of the Israelites
in Egypt for their immunity against the tenth plaque of killing the first born
of all Egyptian households and cattle penultimate night of the flight of the
Israelites from Egypt (Exodus Chapter 12).
(iv) Lastly,
the 24 quadruplet genetic code owes its preservation from the decimation
visited upon the base 4 AUGC neodigibreed at digitality level 4 by
deisodigitation to integrity and compatibility of its codons, in tandem with
the scriptural averment that integrity and uprightness can be waited upon for
one’s preservation as per Psalm. 25 v 21 which says “let integrity and
uprightness preserve me: for I wait on thee”, inasmuch as compatibility is the
science equivalence of scripture’s uprightness, where both command acceptance
and acceptability anytime anywhere and are welcome. These analogies between
Science and Scripture cited are among many others that reveal the mutuality
between them to the extent that they are more profitably utilized as the two
opposite faces of the coin of Creation, where ALL in entirety, seen or unseen,
belong.
The 24 quadruplet
genetic code and the minority theory of impurity
The minority theory of impurity states that a
few pure healthy grains in the midst of a mass of some other pure healthy
grains are doomed to rejection as an impurity. The 24 quadruplet genetic code
is represented as permutations in the base 4 AUGC neodigibreed of 256
quadruplet digitisms (units) wherein 232 quadruplet nonpermutations also
dwell. The ratio of permutations to nonpermutations is given by 24:232::3:29,
hence the permutations are in the negligible minority and therefore subject to
rejection under the dictates of the minority theory of impurity. Yet, the 24
quadruplets in the base 4 AUGC neodigibreed, the only indirect source of the
true genetic code, is not only able to defy the impurity theory of minority in
its habitat, but also to reverse it to the disadvantage of its contemporary in
the overwhelming majority, namely the 232 nonpermutations. The fate of the
nonpermutation majority in the base 4 AUGC neodigibreed from the joint
pictorial account by Charts 1 and 2
concerning the slain members is nothing but dolor (distress and sorrow).
Observation: It is observed in Charts 1 and 2
that
(i) NonIsodigit
plus NonIsodigit→ NonIsodigit Product
(ii) NonIsodigit
plus Isodigit → Isodigit Product
(iii) Isodigit
plus NonIsodigit → Isodigit Product
(iv) Isodigit
plus Isodigit → Isodigit Product
Nonisodigit representing the pure cannot
undo isodigit representing the impure as per line (ii), whereas isodigit
(impure) can undo nonisodigit (pure) as in line (iii). These results are
phenomenal in the material domain in Science and also in Scripture (Haggai 2 v
1213).
CONCLUSION
The
base 4 AUGC neodigibreeed is a quarry, indeed a treasuretrove from which this
combinatorist in recent times has successfully mined the 24 quadruplet
permutation codons from the digitality 4 region for his microbiologist clients
that are committed to throwing light on the structure of the true genetic code
in the context of its involvement in protein synthesis. The most urgent need of
the 24quadruplet genetic code straight from the quarry is neither that of
refinement nor purification, but supremely that of spelling, whereby its codons
can be experimentally allocated to the 20 amino acids of protein and four place
and time based start/stop signals needful and operational in protein synthesis
in NATURE. Collinearity between the code and amino acids of protein works on
uniqueness of individuals mutually amongst them involving 24 unique quadruplet
codons and 20 also unique amino acids of protein on one to one correspondence,
whereby the four spare unique codons serve as four time and place based
start/stop control signals during protein synthesis effected by the 24
quadruplet genetic code as the workforce.
RECOMMENDATION
This
24 quadruplet genetic code being combinatorically sound is recommended to
experimental experts in molecular biology, genetics, etc., fields for spelling
to render it fit for adoption in coding application in protein studies, so as
to free the world of science from the error of the 64triplet genetic code
currently in use.
1.
Becker
WM (1986) The world of the cell. The Benjamin and Cummings Publishing Company,
Inc.
2.
Bozegha
WB (2004) Solid state mixing highway to permutations and combinations
computation. (Unpublished).
3.
Bozegha
WB (2008) Computational applications of inter serial numbering. (Unpublished).
4.
Crick
FRC (1962) Genetic code ii. Sci Am J.
5.
Hornsby
EJ Jr. (1990) Mathematical ideas. 6^{th} Edn. London, Harper Collins
Publisher.
QUICK LINKS
 SUBMIT MANUSCRIPT
 RECOMMEND THE JOURNAL

SUBSCRIBE FOR ALERTS
RELATED JOURNALS
 Food and NutritionCurrent Research(ISSN:26381095)
 Advances in Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology Research (26885476)
 Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine(ISSN:26416948)
 Journal of Veterinary and Marine Sciences
 Proteomics and Bioinformatics (ISSN:26417561)
 Journal of Genomic Medicine and Pharmacogenomics(ISSN:24744670)
 Journal of Genetics and Cell Biology(ISSN:26393360)