|Seudjip Nono Lydie Joelle*, Traoré Adama, Adegbidi Hugues, Tukadila Kabangi Hervé Alex, Nkodila Natuhoyila Aliocha and Bunga Muntu Paulo|
|Corresponding Author: Seudjip Nono Lydie Joelle, University Clinics of Kinshasa, University of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo P.O Box 834 Kinshasa XI|
|Received: April 09, 2020; Revised: April 16, 2020; Accepted: April 18, 2020 Available Online: April 29, 2020|
|Citation: Joelle SNL, Adama T, Hugues A, Alex TKH, Aliocha NN et al. (2020) Lesional Diagnostic Approach of Common Dermatoses in Children at the University Clinics of Kinshasa - Democratic Republic of Congo. BioMed Res J, 4(3): 245-253.|
|Copyrights: ©2020 Joelle SNL, Adama T, Hugues A, Alex TKH, Aliocha NN et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.|
Context and objectives: Several authors approach epidemiological studies on dermatoses using an etiological diagnostic approach; the Willaniste school being mostly reserved for learners of dermatology and/or non-dermatologist doctors. The objective of this study is to determine the profile of dermatoses in children using exclusively the type of elementary lesion. Methods: In a retrospective, analytical and descriptive study, the data of children with dermatoses followed in the Dermatology Service of the University Clinics of Kinshasa between June 1, 2009 and December 31, were collected. The parameters of interest included epidemiological and clinical characteristics.
Results: The hospital frequency of dermatoses in children (DC) according to the lesional diagnostic approach is 40.89% (818/1994). Their median age was 60 months (QEI 60-65.9) with a female predominance (55.7%, sex ratio of 1.25/1). There were more infants (30.6%). DC predominated in the dry season (54%). The entangled (21.02%) and vesicular (20.29%) lesional types were the most numerous, with ringworm of the scalp (31.9%) and atopic dermatitis (54.2%) respectively. The papular, erythematous, tumor and entangled lesion types were related to sex and age; pustular and tumor exclusively related to the season, in a statistically significant way (p ˂ 0.05). Taken as a whole, the most frequent dermatoses were atopic dermatitis (11%), prurigo strophulus (10.8%), impetigo (7.4%), Tinea capitis (6.7%) and scabiosis (6.4%).
Conclusion: The importance of this work lies in the interest of taking into account the two approaches, lesional and etiological of dermatoses, for their global management and research studies. Indeed, the lesional approach, also important in the study of dermatoses, appears to our knowledge to be poor in references in the literature.
Keywords: Dermatoses, Children, Lesional diagnostic approach, Kinshasa
- Elementary lesion: initial or secondary lesion, as it appears with the naked eye, thanks to it we make an immediate diagnosis and from there, a classification of the dermatosis.
- Entangled lesion: association of more than one elementary lesion.
- Lesional group: group of dermatoses having the same type of elementary lesion in common.
- Clinical diagnosis: dermatosis objectified at the end of the clinical examination on departure from the type of elementary lesion.
Out of 1994 patients followed in the service during the study period, 818 were children (40.8%); the female sex was predominant (55.7%) with a female/male sex ratio of 1.25 (Table 1). Their median age was 60 months (60-65.9 months), with extremes 0 to 218 months. Infants were the largest age group (30.6%). Dermatoses predominated in the dry season (54.0%) with peaks in February (12.3%) and July (11.9%).
The distribution of lesional types of dermatoses according to sex (Table 2) had shown that entangled (28.01%) and vesicular (20.3%) were the most frequent with predominance in the male sex (28.21%, p ˂ 0.001 for the entangled type). The papular (19.1%), erythematous-scaly (10.5%), tumor (5.9%), erythematous (4.6%) and entangled (28.01%) lesional types were sex-linked with p˂0.05.
The importance of this work lies in the interest of taking into account the two approaches, both lesional and etiological, for the global management of dermatoses. In fact, the lesional approach, which is also equally important in the study of dermatoses, appears to our knowledge to be poor in references in the literature.
CONFLICT OF INTERESTS
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