We will now approach the fundamental role of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems in anger. It is known that in normal conditions the nerve fibres of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems secrete two main neurotransmitters, Norepinephrine and adrenaline and Acetylcholine. Therefore, the fibres that produce norepinephrine activate adrenergic receptors and those that secrete acetylcholine activate cholinergic receptors . However, on this specific matter we can say, as a “serious joke”, that in a situation of anger the sympathetic nervous system becomes unpleasant since it is through its involvement in the process that “angry” individuals may be at risk, more or less, serious and even fatal [22,23]. As typical signs of this sympathetic hyper function we can see tachycardia (arrhythmia), dyspnoea, sweating, increased blood pressure, bronchial dilation, retraction of motility of the large intestine, contraction of blood vessels, increased peristalsis of the peristalsis arise oesophagus, pupil dilation and piloseerection [21,24].
Teeth: They are displayed, in the manner of the apes, showing the enemy that we are capable of biting (a phylogenetic reminiscence?)
Cardiovascular system: Uncontrolled increase in heartbeat frequency (sinus tachycardia, pathological arrhythmia, possible cardiac arrest in extreme situations).
Respiratory system: Dyspnoea of variable severity.
Brain: Several structures are activated:
- Hypothalamus: responsible for physiological responses: racing heart, sweat, red face. The blood goes to the hands rather than the legs - preparing us to fight, not to run.
- Amygdala: assesses the reaction according to what was seen or heard and decide whether the individual will choose to flee or fight, the latter being compatible with situations of anger.
In this study we tried, in the most informative and clear way to summarize the content of this complex subject, as are all those related to the human mind and its anatomical-physiological correlates. As mentioned above, there is much more to say but we hope to have settled the basis for further approaches in this area.
- Al-Shawaf LD, Conroy B, Asao K, Buss MD (2014) Human emotions: An evolutionary psychological perspective. SAGE Publications 8(2): 173-186.
- Watson D, Clark LA, Tellegen A (1988) Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS Scales. J Pers Soc Psychol 54(6): 1063-1070.
- Acevedo MA, Rosmalen JGM, Ranchor VA, Roest AM (2019) Positive affect and functional somatic symptoms in young adults. J Psychosom Res 127.
- Silvia P, Warburton J (2006) Positive and negative affect: Bridging states and traits, Compr. Handb 336: 1-55.
- Lerner JS, Keltner D (2001) Fear, anger, and risk. J Pers Soc Psychol 81(1): 146-159.
- Lewis M (2010) The development of anger. International Handbook of Anger.
- Kowalska M, Wróbel M (2017) Basic emotions, encyclopedia of personality and individual differences. Springr.
- Averill JR (2012) Anger, Encyclopedia of Human Behavior: 2nd Edition.
- Berkowitz L, Harmon JE (2004) Toward an understanding of the determinants of anger. Emotion.
- Radke S, Roelofs K, Bruijn ERAD (2013) Acting on Anger: Social anxiety modulates approach-avoidance tendencies after oxytocin administration. Psychol Sci 24(8).
- Mehta M, Sagar R (2015) Anger management, A practical approach to cognitive behaviour therapy for adolescents, Springer.
- Wilkowski BM, Robinson MD (2010) The anatomy of anger: An integrative cognitive model of trait anger and reactive aggression. J Pers 78(1): 9-38.
- Blair RJR, Morris JS, Frith CD, Perrett DI, Dolan RJ (1999) Dissociable neural responses to facial expressions of sadness and anger. Brain AJFN 5: 883-893.
- Bertsch K, Krauch M, Roelofs K, Cackowski S, Herpertz SC, et al. (2019) Out of control? Acting out anger is associated with deficient prefrontal emotional action control in male patients with borderline personality disorder. Neuropharmacology156: 0-1.
- Demura H (1994) Stress and hormone, Nippon Naibunpi Gakkai zasshi.
- Floresco SB (2015) The nucleus accumbens: An interface between cognition, emotion, and action. Annu Rev Psychol 66(1).
- Basar K, Sesia T, Groenewegen H, Steinbusch HWM, Visser VV et al. (2010) Nucleus accumbens and impulsivity. Prog Neurobiol 92(4): 533-557.
- Salgado S, Kaplitt MG (2015) The nucleus accumbens: A comprehensive review. SFN 93(2): 75-93.
- Dölen G, Darvishzadeh A, Huang KW, Malenka RC (2013) Social reward requires coordinated activity of nucleus accumbens oxytocin and serotonin. Nature 501(7466): 179-184.
- Kalivas PW, Volkow ND (2005) The neural basis of addiction: A pathology of motivation and choice. AJP 162(8): 1403-1413.
- Levenson RW (2014) The autonomic nervous system and emotion. Emot Rev 6(2): 110-112.
- Florea VG, Cohn JN (2014) The autonomic nervous system and heart failure. Circ Res 114(11): 1815-1826.
- Donkelaar HJT, Nĕmcová V, Lammens M, Overeem S (2020) The autonomic nervous system. Clinical Neuroanatomy: Brain Circuitry and Its Disorders, Clinical Anatomy.
- Kreibig SD (2010) Autonomic nervous system activity in emotion: A review. Bio Psycho.
- Zhan M, Hortensius R, Gelder BD (2015) The body as a tool for anger awareness-differential effects of angry facial and bodily expressions on suppression from awareness, PLoS One.
- Nummenmaa L, Glerean E, Hari R, Hietanen JK (2014) Bodily maps of emotions. Proc Natl Acad Sci 111(2): 646-651.
- Ring EFJ, Ammer K (2015) The technique of infrared imaging in medicine, Infrared Imaging: A Casebook in Clinical Medicine : 1-10.
- Ammer K, Ring F (2019) The thermal human body.
- Advance Research on Alzheimers and Parkinsons Disease
- Journal of Infectious Diseases and Research (ISSN: 2688-6537)
- Journal of Blood Transfusions and Diseases (ISSN:2641-4023)
- Journal of Oral Health and Dentistry (ISSN:2638-499X)
- Journal of Cancer Science and Treatment (ISSN:2641-7472)
- Journal of Pathology and Toxicology Research
- Journal of Ageing and Restorative Medicine (ISSN:2637-7403)