Research Article
Parenting Style on Adolescent Multidimensional Aspects
Shyny Joy Puthur*
Corresponding Author: Shyny Joy Puthur, Higher Secondary School H.S.S Arimpur, India
Received: May 17, 2020; Revised: June 24, 2020; Accepted: June 26, 2020 Available Online: October 08, 2020
Citation: Puthur SJ.(2021) Parenting Style on Adolescent Multidimensional aspects. J Psychiatry Psychol Res, 4(1): 379-390.
Copyrights: ©2021 Puthur SJ. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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This research was an effort to investigate mental health, emotional intelligence, self-esteem, personality and achievement motivation of adolescents associated with their parents’ parenting styles. A stratified sample of 600 adolescents from public and private schools of Thrissur, Kerala were selected to participate in this study. APAFFQ is specially constructed and standardized to measure parenting attitude of adolescents. Self-constructed Standardized MESPA Self Rating Scale which use to measure Adolescent Multidimensional aspects. Four Parenting styles according to role & nature defined here are Authoritarian or power exerting disciplinarians, Authoritative or Warm giving protectors, Permissive or Lenient freedom givers, Uninvolved or Selfish autonomy givers were assessed through self-constructed standardized APAFFQ on 600 adolescents.

Keywords:Mental health, Emotional intelligence, Self-esteem, Personality, Achievement motivation, Authoritarian Authoritative Permissive Uninvolved

INTRODUCTION
This research might contribute to create awareness among parents, teachers, psychologists and counselors about the effects of parenting styles on adolescents’ multi-dimensional aspects. There have been significant increases in risk taking behaviors of adolescents. Parenting process combines all the activities of the parents that intended to support their children’s wellbeing. One of the most studied approaches to understanding parental influences on human development is concept of parenting style. Here is the importance of measuring adolescent’s parenting attitude depends on their parents parenting styles. Many researchers recognized the importance of parenting style in child development. Many of the studies followed three parenting styles originally proposed by Baumrind namely authoritative parenting, authoritarian parenting and permissive parenting, though in 1971, Baumrind grouped parents to three or four parenting styles according to their child rearing patterns, on the basis of her interviews with parents and children. For grouping parents to different styles, studies [1] suggested a conceptual structure in 1983; they viewed parenting style as combinations of differing levels of parental demandingness and warmth. There is a growing interest in the role of parenting in a person’s affective and social characteristics. Adolescents from most authoritarian families have been found to exhibit poor social skills, low levels of self-esteem, and high levels of depression. Permissive parenting is characterized by high levels of responsiveness and low levels of demandingness. Uninvolved parents do not set rules, avoid engaging in behavioral control, and set few behavioral expectations for adolescents. Personality is along five dimensions or five main factors, including openness to experience, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness and neuroticism.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Maccoby et al. [1] in a study on parenting and mental health of adolescents find the authoritarian parents appear to be demanding and directive rather being responsive. They ensure too strict environment to their children to communicate openly. Studies [2] showed the parenting style directly contributes towards growth and development of children and adolescents including their education, and overall health and well-being. A study is carried out [3] on the importance of social relationship on personality of adolescents. The social 
relationship (social contracts and perceived support) has great importance on adolescent personality (extroversion andneuroticism and anxiety). The results indicate that controlling for personality and social contacts buffered against increase in anxiety, whereas perceived support did not study the personality correlates of scores on the depression-happiness scale. Darling and Steinberg [4] studied on parenting style and demonstrate that emotional environment in which children are brought up by their parents. In a similar study [5], it was found that the authoritarian parenting style was more advantageous to Asian Americans than the authoritative style in terms of adjustment and academic performance.Research [6] suggested that conscientiousness, agreeableness and emotional stability cohere into a higher-order trait of great developmental significance. Research [7] studied the relationship between the neuroticism, extraversion and other five factor inventory (NEOFFI) and DSM personality disorders in a consecutive series of mentally disordered offenders and the result showed that the neuroticism has the symptoms of depressed disorder personality. Research [8] showed the relationship between authoritative parenting and academic performance. Studies showed that parents with high degree of control have the adolescents with poor achievement motivation. Research [9] has studied the relationships between two personality characteristics (neuroticism, extraversion), three types of supportive transaction (emotional support, social companionship, instrumental support) and satisfaction with these transaction, and two aspects of mental health (feeling of anxiety and depressed mood) among 280 patients. The result indicates that people with neurotic personality showed more anxiety and depressed feeling. Positive parenting promotes personality and mental health.In a retrospective study of adolescent with their parental influence taken to consideration were their children like direct involvement with children, emotion related believes, positive expressiveness etc [10]. Females were found to have greater emotional understanding than males. Research [11] has showed high self-esteem promote positive memories leading to enhanced achievement. Results showed that girl participants had higher self-esteem and positive memories leading to upward social and educational effectiveness than their counterparts having low self-esteem and negative memories.Self-esteem is an important predictor of school performance by showing that boys exhibiting joking attitude towards girls possessed decreased level of self-esteem. Studies describe that parents have huge impact on a person’s life. Number of studies in the area of parenting matches its importance on the developing person. Parenting process combines all the activities of the parents that intended to support their children’s wellbeing. Studies [12] explain personality as change appears to result from environmental as well as biological influences. Research [13] described the role of parental support on the achievement motivation of adolescents. This investigation proved the relationship between parental support and achievement motivation. 500 adolescents of age group 16-18 years from Varanasi city taken as sample. They use Deo Mohan achievement motivation scale and family support scale. It proved that achievement motivation is related with parenting styles.
 
Araujo et al. [14] have showed that self-esteem is a stronger contributor to educational achievement as well as it plays a crucial role in educational success, especially for male students. Another study [15] examined that the permissive parenting is the control the parent also has over themselves. Previous research has shown that permissive parents who have problems with their children surrendered to their child when it was demanding, which reveals issues with parental self-control.Researchsuggested even though parents are one factor which influences self-esteem, age and sex play a vital role as well. Studies have found differences in males and females, with males having overall higher levels of self-esteem than females.
 
Kumar et al. [16] conducted a study to explore the emotional maturity of adolescent students in relation to family relationship. He found that there is significant relation between emotional maturity and family relationship of adolescent students. He showed that family relationship determinates emotional maturity of adolescent students. A study was conducted [17] to search the influence of parenting on emotional intelligence of college students. He selected 360 undergraduate college students from various colleges of the Kolhapur city. Results revealed that the sex factor of college students does not affect significantly on emotional intelligence. Another study [18] proved that in 1981, two years after the ban, accompanied by a wide-scale campaign, more than 90 percent of Swedish families were aware that the law had changed. The number of children who have experienced smacking has declined dramatically to just a few percent after 2000. A research [19] was carried out on the effect of this parenting style on peer relationships and self-efficacy in college students. These parents are highly engaged with their children, taking responsibility for their actions and in a way overly guiding their children's decisions. Shyness tends to be more in strict authoritative parenting style. A significant negative correlation was noticed between authoritarian parenting style shyness. Rezvan [20] showed that parent's excessive protection and parenting style and parent-child attachment have significant positive relationship on shyness level of high school students. Paternal emotional warmth has significant effect on adolescent's shyness level.
 
Kondiba et al. [21] studied that adolescents in a nuclear family system do not have equivalent emotional support. The adolescents in a nuclear family are used to receiving a lot of attention to their wishes and may have less impulse control in comparison to those from a joint family. Adolescents from joint family system are likely to be better socially adjusted than the ones in a nuclear family system. Family is the first and most crucial socializing unit in a person’s life. The family which is joint or nuclear makes an impact on the child ‘s learning, values and emotional stability. BhutekarandShirsath [22] found the effect of parenting style on level of frustration among adolescence. 80 adolescence select from Aurangabad city by using purposive sampling method. Parental Authority Questionnaire-Revised and frustration scale were used for data collection. Results showed the significant effect of various parenting styles on frustration and Personality among adolescents. Authoritarian parenting style adolescence has high frustration level then Authoritative parent style adolescence.PatilandAdsul [23] found the role of family environment and area of living to the development of psychological resilience among college going students. Family environment play a lead role to the development of resilience. Positive family environment and warmth parenting is always useful for adolescents and negative family environment function to the development of unhealthy personality. Leung and Daniel [24] explained the effect of family functioning on adolescent achievement motivation. They defined the relationship between maternal expectation of children's future and adolescent achievement motivation [25].
SAMPLE
A stratified sample of 600 adolescents (Male, n= 300 and Female, n = 300) from public and private schools of Thrissur (Urban=288 and Rural=312), Kerala, (12 yrs =204, 15 yrs. =206 and 18yrs =190) were selected to participate in this study.
TOOLS
  1. Self-constructed Standardized APA FFQ (Adolescent Parenting Attitude Four Factor Questionnaire)
(1. IOSR, ISSN: 2320-7388, Volume-7, issue-4, August 2017
IJSRP, ISSN-2250-3153, Volume-8, Issue-5, May-2018)
  1. Self-constructed Standardized MESPA (Mental health, Emotional intelligence, Self-esteem, Personality, Achievement motivation) Self Rating Scale.
(1. IJSER, ISSN: 2229-5518, Volume-8, Issue-7, July-2017
  1. IJSS, ISSN: 2348-3008, Volume-6, Issue-3, June-2018)
RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H1: There will be a significant correlation for APAFFQ &MESPA within gender, area, age group and Parenting style.
H2: There will be a correlation within mental health, Emotional intelligence, Self-esteem, Personality and Achievement motivation of adolescents with each other.
H3: There will be a significant correlation within Gender, Area and Age group with adolescent Parenting attitude and Multidimensional aspects.
H4:There will be a significant correlation between adolescent parenting attitude &Multidimensional aspects across the Gender, Area and Age group.
Hypothesis 1
H1:There will be a significant correlation for APAFFQ & MESPA within gender, area, age group and Parenting style.
Table 1 illustrates that the correlation value is above the required cut-off of 0.05 which is the significant level for all the variables. Therefore, there is no significant differences (p>0.05) in the mean value of the Adolescent Parenting Attitude Four Factor Questionnaire (APAFFQ) and MESPA Self Rating Scale between females and males. It is inferred from the mean value that male score is slightly higher than female for all new tools. Therefore, a part of the hypothesis (H1) stating “there will be a significant correlation for MESPA &APAFFQ within gender, area, age group and Parenting style” can be accepted.
Table 2 illustrates that the correlation value is above the required cut-off of 0.05 which is the significant level for all the variables. Therefore, there were no significant differences (p>0.05) in the mean value of the Adolescent Parenting Attitude Four Factor Questionnaire (APAFFQ), and MESPA Self Rating Scale between urban and rural. Therefore, a part of the hypothesis (H1) stating “there will be a significant correlation for MESPA& APAFFQ within gender, area, age group and Parenting style” can be accepted.
The results of the Kruskal-Wallis test depicted in Table 3 reveals that a statistical value of p >0.05 for all the variables considered. The correlation value is above the required cut-off of 0.05 which is the significant level for all the variables. So, can be concluded that the mean score of APAFFQ &MESPA does not differs with age. Therefore, a part of the hypothesis (H1) stating “there will be a significant correlation for new tools within gender, area, age group and Parenting style” can be accepted.
The results of the Kruskal-Wallis test depicted in Table 4 reveals that a statistical value of correlation value is less than 0.05 for all the variables considered. So, can concluded that the mean score of Adolescent Parenting Attitude Four Factor Questionnaire (APAFFQ) do not differs with parenting style.
 But the mean score ofMESPA Self Rating Scale differs within parenting styles. Therefore, a part of the hypothesis (H1) stating "there will be a significant correlation for new tools within gender, area, age group and Parenting style" is partially accepted.
 
Hypothesis 2
H2. There will be a correlation within mental health, Emotional intelligence, Self-esteem, Personality and Achievement motivation of adolescents with each other.
 Table 5 shows the correlation within the MESPA (Mental health, Emotional intelligence, Self-esteem, Personality and Achievement motivation) Self Rating Scale sub variables.
 Here the correlation is significant at 0.01 levels. Spearman's correlation is a non-parametric measure of the strength and duration of association that exists between two variables measures on at least an ordinal scale. The result indicates the significant correlation within all MESPA variables. Thus, the hypothesis (H2) stating “there will be a correlation within mental health, Emotional intelligence, Self-esteem, Personality and Achievement motivation of adolescents with each other” can be accepted.
Table 6 shows the correlation between MESPA (Mental health, Emotional intelligence, Self-esteem, Personality and Achievement motivation) Self Rating Scale sub variables; Mental health, Emotional intelligence, Self-esteem, Personality and Achievement motivation. The correlation value is below 0.05. (P<0.05) shows the significant correlation. So, the hypothesis (H2) stating“there will be a correlation within mental health, Emotional intelligence, Self-esteem, Personality and Achievement motivation of adolescents with each other” is accepted.
Hypothesis 3
H3: There will be a significant correlation within Gender, Area and Age group with adolescent Parenting attitude and Multidimensional aspects.
Table 7 illustrates that the correlation value is above the required cut-off of 0.05 for all the variables. Therefore, there were no significant differences (p>0.05) in the mean value of the Adolescent Parenting Attitude Four Factor Questionnaire (APAFFQ) withGender. Therefore, a part of the hypothesis (H3) stating “there will be a significant correlation within Gender, Area and Age group with adolescent Parenting attitude and Multidimensional aspects” can be accepted.
 Table 8 illustrates that the correlation value is above the required cut-off of 0.05 for all the variables. Therefore, there were no significant differences (p>0.05) in the mean value of the Adolescent Parenting Attitude Four Factor Questionnaire (APAFFQ) with Area. Thus, a part of the hypothesis (H3) stating “there will be a significant correlation within Gender, Area and Age group with adolescent Parenting attitude and Multidimensional aspects” can be accepted.
 Table 9 displays the Kruskal-Wallis test indicates that the mean scores of age and parenting styles does not differ with Adolescent Parenting Attitude Four Factor Questionnaire (APAFFQ) sub variables. Therefore, a part of the hypothesis (H3) stating “there will be a significant correlation within Gender, Area and Age group with adolescent Parenting attitude and Multidimensional aspects” can be partially accepted.
Table 10 illustrates that the correlation value is above the required cut-off of 0.05 for all the variables. The mean value of the (Mental health, Emotional intelligence, Self-esteem, Personality and Achievement motivation) Self Rating Scale sub variables do not differ with Gender. Result also indicates that Multidimensional aspects of males are slightly higher than female. Thus, a part of the hypothesis (H3) stating “there will be a significant correlation within Gender, Area and Age group with Parenting styles, adolescent Parenting attitude and Multidimensional aspects” can be accepted.
Table 11 illustrates that the p value is below the required cut-off of 0.05 for all the variables. Therefore, there were significant differences (p < 0.05) in the mean value of the (Mental health, Emotional intelligence, Self-esteem, Personality and Achievement motivation) Self Rating Scale sub variables and area. Adolescents of Urban area show comparatively high mental health, Emotional intelligence, Self-esteem, Personality and Achievement motivation than rural adolescents. So, a part of the hypothesis (H3) stating “there will be a significant correlation within Gender, Area and Age group with Parenting styles, adolescent Parenting attitude, Behavior problem and Multidimensional aspects” can be rejected.
Table 12illustrates that the p value is below the required cut-off of 0.05 for all the variables. Therefore, there were significant differences (p <0.05) in the mean value of the MESPA Self Rating Scale sub variables and age group. The age group 18 shows comparatively high mental health, Emotional intelligence, Self-esteem, Personality and Achievement motivation. Therefore, a part of the hypothesis (H3) stating "there will be a significant correlation within Gender, Area and Age group with Parenting styles, adolescent Parenting attitude and Multidimensional aspects” can be rejected.
The results of the Kruskal-Wallis test depicted in Table 13 reveals that a statistical value of p is less than 0.05 for all the variables considered. So, can be concluded that the mean score of MESPA (Mental health, Emotional intelligence, Self-esteem, Personality and Achievement motivation) Self Rating Scale sub variables differs with parenting styles. Thus, a part of the hypothesis (H3) stating “there will be a significant correlation within Gender, Area and Age group with adolescent Parenting attitude and Multidimensional aspects” can be rejected.
Hypothesis 4
H4: There will be a significant correlation between adolescent parenting attitude &multidimensional aspects across the Gender, Area and Age group.
Table 14 shows correlation between MESPA (Mental health, Emotional intelligence, Self-esteem, Personality and Achievement motivation) Self Rating Scale sub variables and Adolescent Parenting Attitude Four Factor Questionnaire (APAFFQ) sub variables. Result shows the significant correlation at 0.001 level. Thus, a part of the hypothesis (H4) stating there will be a significant correlation between adolescent parenting attitude &Multidimensional aspects across the Gender, Area and Age group can be accepted.
DISCUSSION
Means, Standard deviation and Mann-Whitney U value for New tools with Gender and Area shows that the correlation value are above the required cut-off of 0.05 for all the variables. Therefore, there is no significant differences (p>0.05) in the mean value of the Adolescent Parenting Attitude Four Factor Questionnaire (APAFFQ), & MESPA (Mental health, Emotional intelligence, Self-esteem, Personality and Achievement motivation) Self Rating Scalewith Gender and Area. The results of the Kruskal- Wallis test for new tools with 3 age groups reveals that a statistical value of p >0.05 for all the variables considered. So can be conclude that the mean score of Adolescent Parenting Attitude Four Factor Questionnaire (APAFFQ) do not differ with parenting style. But the mean score ofMESPA Self Rating Scale differs within parenting styles. Adolescents of Urban area show comparatively high mental health, Emotional intelligence, Self-esteem, Personality and Achievement motivation than rural adolescents. Therefore, the hypothesis (H1) stating "there will be a significant correlation for new tools within gender, area, age group and Parenting style" can be partially accepted. Spearman's correlation indicates the significant correlation within all MESPA variables.
The results of his study showed that adolescents of indulgent and authoritative households have better self-esteem and other outcomes than adolescents of authoritarian and neglectful parents. So, the hypothesis (H2) stating." there will be a correlation within mental health, Emotional intelligence, Self-esteem, Personality and Achievement motivation of adolescents with each other" is accepted. Thus, the hypothesis (H3) stating "there will be a significant correlation within Gender, Area and Age group with Parenting styles, adolescent Parenting attitude, and
Multidimensional aspects" can be accepted. Findings revealed that authoritative and permissive upbringing adolescents were established as most optimum style with least mental health & personality problems while authoritarian and uninvolved parenting was associated with major problem.
FINDINGS OF THE RESULT
  • Multidimensional aspects of adolescents like mental health, Emotional intelligence, Self-esteem, Personality and Achievement motivation are correlated with their parent's parenting style.
  • A positive correlation exists within the sub variables of Multidimensional aspects of adolescents like mental health, Emotional intelligence, Self-esteem, Personality and Achievement motivation.
  • Adolescents of Authoritative parents show higher level of Mental health, Emotional intelligence, Self-esteem, Personality and Achievement motivation while Permissive adolescents have moderate score Authoritarian and Uninvolved have poor score in multidimensional aspects.
  • Parenting style does not change with adolescent's Gender, Area or Age group.
CONCLUSIONS
  1. Multidimensional aspects of adolescents like mental health, Emotional intelligence, Self-esteem, Personality and Achievement motivation are correlated with their parent's parenting style.
  2. A positive correlation exists within the sub variables of Multidimensional aspects of adolescents like mental health, Emotional intelligence, Self-esteem, Personality and Achievement motivation.
  3. Adolescents of Authoritative parents have high level, Permissive have moderate level while Authoritarian and Uninvolved have low level of mental health, Emotional intelligence, Self-esteem, Personality and Achievement motivation.
LIMITATIONS
The sample size which is presently too small not enough to explore the Multidimensional aspects of adolescenceof general population.
  • This study focuses on parenting attitudes of adolescents associated with multidimensional aspectsof Indian families only but diverse samples of different countries have found variations in these relationships.
  • The studies included in this research are only cross-sectional (only one time contact with the subject) not longitudinal survey, which need a constant follow up and more time.
IMPLICATIONS
  1. Parents get insight for providing their adolescents an opportunity to develop totheir fullest growth and encourage them to participate in activities that foster the feelings of security in them.
  2. The result and conclusion of this study provide necessary information for future research in clinical and educational field.
  3. This study give knowledge about the multidimensional aspects of adolescents like Mental health, Emotional intelligence, Self-esteem, Personality and Achievement motivation and the influence of parenting style on it should be given consideration when planning any programmes for teenagers in this country.
  4. Present study could be implemented to generate better understanding on adolescents by parents, teachers, psychologist or counselors to find various personality and mental health problems and to provide various prevention- intervention programmes for both parents as well as their adolescents.
  5. The present investigation is very helpful for educational experts to update the curriculum of secondary as well as higher secondary schools of our country.
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER WORK
  • Similar study with a component of psychological intervention will be more useful in future research to get some new insights in parenting style on multidimensional aspects of adolescents.
  • A parallel study with longitudinal survey is needed for a constant follow up in future research to get some new insights in parenting style on adolescent’s behavioral outcomes.
  • Similar study should include diverse samples with different contextual factors like Economic background, Social status, Educational background etc. to get good results.
 
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