Mini-Review
A Mini Review: Overview of Employee Group Cohesiveness
Didik Widiantoro* and Icha Herawati
Corresponding Author: Didik Widiantoro, Faculty of Psycology, Universitas Islam Riau, Kaharuddin, NST Street Number 113, Marpoyan Damai, Pekanbaru, Indonesia
Received: February 15, 2020; Revised: May 20, 2020; Accepted: September 14, 2020
Citation: Widiantoro D & Herawati I. (2020) A Mini Review: Overview of Employee Group Cohesiveness. J Psychiatry Psychol Res, 3(5): 272-274.
Copyrights: ©2020 Widiantoro D & Herawati I. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Share :

Groups are important in an organization. Therefore, companies must pay special attention to this. One aspect that must be considered is strength in groups. This is usually called group cohesiveness. Researchers conducted research on Group Cohesiveness in employees. The type of this study uses a purely descriptive study with information on the data obtained directly from participants using interviews. In this study discusses aspects of group cohesiveness taken from Forsyth namely Social Strength, Unity in Groups, Attractiveness and Collaboration in Groups. The data collection method uses observation and interview techniques. Data processing from this study uses qualitative analysis (descriptive). Descriptive qualitative analysis is a method of examining the status of a group of people, an object, a set of conditions, a system of thought or a flash of events in the present. The aim is to make a systematic, factual and accurate descriptive picture or painting of the facts, nature and relationships between the phenomena investigated. The subjects of this study were 3 employees at the Islamic University of Riau. The results of this study obtained a high level of social strength that employees have made motivation to always work in groups. The same thing is found in the aspect of unity in the group and the attraction they have, the high sense of unity causes a strong attraction for one another in completing each task in the employee group team. And in the end the aspect of group collaboration arises by itself in each individual.

 

Keywords: Group cohesiveness, Social strength, Unity in groups, Attractiveness and Collaboration in Groups

INTRODUCTION

Cohesive groups are groups that have unity. Each member has similarities and interactions to last a long time. Group cohesiveness is a description of the extent to which each group member is attracted to one another. As well as being part of the group, the high cohesiveness of the group members has good leadership in maintaining the group [1].

The current paradigm change shows that group performance is considered more effective than individual performance. Togetherness and collaboration between members in a group that are interdependent and have a sense of unity to support the success of each other lead to group cohesiveness. Cohesiveness is a dynamic process that reflects the tendency of group members together to stay united in working together to achieve group goals [2]. Group cohesiveness can be realized by several things, [3] states that there are four cohesiveness factors, namely social force, group unity (unity in groups), attraction (attraction), and teamwork (group cooperation).

In a study conducted by Dwityanto and Amalia with the title “Relationship between Group Cohesiveness and Organizational Commitment at PT NA Pekalongan”. This study was conducted in 2012 which aims to determine the relationship between group cohesiveness and organizational commitment at PT NA Pekalongan. The results showed a positive relationship between group cohesiveness and organizational commitment to employees. Islamic University of Riau is one of the active educational institutions in the field of education services that were founded in 1962. Based on preliminary data it can be seen that the average total group cohesiveness is high with a percentage for yes answers of 75%, whereas not only by 25%. Preliminary data shows that there are variations in answers that agree and disagree. For this reason, further research is needed to find out the overall picture of group cohesiveness at Islamic University of Riau.

METHODOLOGY

This study has types of data and sources were obtained from primary data from observations and interviews with 3 employees at Islamic University of Riau. The observation and interview guidance instrument used in this study was group cohesiveness at Islamic University of Riau. Group cohesiveness is measured through indicators as follows.

Social strength

The strength felt by employees to remain in their work units. Where these strengths make employees to stay in touch and unite to face other forces that will attack him. Measured by the desire of employees not to leave the group, the level of togetherness of employees in the group, and frequent interactions with employees and coworkers.

Unity in a group

A feeling of mutual ownership that an employee feels towards his work group and has a moral feeling related to his membership in his work group. Each employee feels the work group is a family, team and community and has a feeling of togetherness.

Attractiveness

Employees will be more interested in seeing the many benefits and positive benefits derived from the work group rather than looking at the members specifically. Measured through benefits perceived by employees from the experiences of the work group, the fulfillment of resources needed by the employee for the work group's activities, the rewards given to the group.

Group collaboration

A dynamic process that reflects the tendency of employees to stay united and work together with the goal of achieving the goals of the work group. Measured through: the amount of interdependence felt by employees with the work group, the stability of employee membership in the work group, the feeling of responsibility felt by employees towards the achievement of the work group, the employee reduces absenteeism in group activities, the magnitude of the group's ability to be resistant to disturbances.

The study procedure used in this study uses qualitative (descriptive) research. The data analysis used is using the method of data analysis in descriptive analysis. Descriptive analysis method is a method in examining the status of a group of people, an object, a set of conditions, a system of thought or a flash of events in the present. The aim is to make a systematic, factual and accurate descriptive picture or painting of the facts, nature and relationships between the phenomena investigated. This research uses descriptive analysis method intended to obtain images and data systematically about various matters that are closely related to the cohesiveness of employee groups at Islamic University of Riau.

RESULTS

Based on the results obtained from this study, it is known that social strength factors are the strengths felt by employees to remain in their work units. From the interview results obtained from the SN Subject:

“In my career, I have been around for more than 30 years and until now I still feel at home, everything I do with my heart and without any regrets working together until now despite the many problems that I face”.

From the interview quotations obtained from subject (SN) it shows that it is able to survive in working groups for quite a long time. Employees who have high social strength are measured by the magnitude of the employee's desire not to leave the group, the level of togetherness of employees in the group, and the frequent interactions with which employees and colleagues work. From the results of the interview, the subject is able to survive and not leave the work group and interact with his colleagues for a long time. This data is also supported by the results of observations conducted by researchers when the interview took place on the subject (KM), the researcher saw the subject able to interact and build good social relationships with colleagues. Interview data on subject (KM):

“Well ... I am always given support by my team mates; communication is always maintained in my current work group. And it makes me comfortable and comfortable working here”.

In the aspect of unity in the group of employees have a feeling of mutual moral feelings associated with membership in the work group. This was revealed by subject (KM):

“When we got information from one of our office friends who was sick, we together visited and distributed aid ... the assistance could be morally and morally sir ...”.

In reality in their environment, each employee feels that the work group is a family, team and community and has a feeling of togetherness. This shows that each employee has a unity in a high group. Cohesiveness is an increase in individual commitment and interest to join a group. Cohesiveness is formed due to the interest of members to enter the group, interpersonal interest, group morale, group effectiveness, problem solving methods, and the responsibility of the leader [5].

Furthermore, on the attractiveness factor of the group, employees will be more interested in seeing the many benefits and positive benefits derived from the work group rather than looking at the specific members. This is shown from the results of observations made by researchers, from the process of observation of several subjects seen they interact because they feel the benefits and mutual benefits in this case it is seen from the subject usually go together when doing tasks outside the office and also looks to help each other if there is work which requires completion with a group. Based on the data obtained aspects of attractiveness can be measured through the benefits felt by employees from the experiences of the work group, the fulfillment of the resources needed by employees for work group activities, the rewards given to the group. Cohesiveness is the extent to which members feel bound to one another and motivated to remain in the group. For example, some work groups become cohesive because group members have spent a lot of time together, or smaller group sizes facilitate high interactions, or the group has experienced external threats that bring them closer. Cohesiveness is important because it relates to group productivity [5].

In the last aspect of group cooperation which has meaning as a dynamic process that reflects the tendency of employees to stay united and work together with the goal of achieving the goals of the work group. In this aspect shown from the interview data from subject (TA):

 “Yes, it is often done jointly, for example, when preparing documents for a large number of new students, we usually get to work overtime together to complete it”.

Data from subject (SN):

“When the end of the semester there will usually be a final semester exam, and usually we prepare together and begin with a preparation and coordination meeting”.

Group collaboration can be measured by the amount of interdependence felt by employees with the work group, the stability of employee membership in the work group, the feeling of responsibility felt by employees towards the achievement of the work group, employees reduce absenteeism in group activities, the magnitude of the group’s ability to be resistant to disturbances. In group collaboration which will often increase the intensity of communication between group members. A group whose members rarely communicate with one another will not show cohesiveness as well as groups that have high intensity of communication between members [6].

DISCUSSION

This group cohesiveness research shows that the dimension of group cohesiveness is very large. Based on data obtained from the level of social strength they have makes motivation to always work in groups. The same thing is also found in the aspects of unity in the group and the attraction they have, the high sense of unity causes a strong attraction for one another in completing each employee's tasks. And in the end, there is an aspect of group cooperation arising by itself in each individual.

1.  Cumming TG, Worley CG (2005) Organization development and change: Eight Edition. New York: Thomson South Westren.

2. Carron AV (2000) Team cohesion and team success in Sport. J Sport Sci 20: 119-127.

3. Forysth DR (2006) Group Dynamics Fourth. Thompson Wardsworth Learning Erlangga.

4.  Levi D (2015) Group dynamics for teams. Sage Publications.

5.  Robbins GSP (2008) Perilaku Organisasi. New Jersey: Prentice Hal I.

6.  Bachroni M (2011) Pelatihan Pembentukan Tim untuk Meningkatkan Kohesivitas Tim pada Kopertis V Yogyakarta, Jurnal Psikologi Volume 38, No 1. Yogyakarta: Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Gajah Mada.