|Sevilay H* and Hilal P|
|Corresponding Author: Sevilay H, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Nursing, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey|
|Received: July 27, 2018; Accepted: August 19, 2018; Published: February 20, 2019;|
|Citation: Sevilay H & Hilal P. (2019) Foot Reflexology Application in Lung Cancer Patients and Nausea-Vomiting. Chemother Res J, 1(1): 1-3.|
|Copyrights: ©2019 Sevilay H & Hilal P. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.|
Lung cancer is the most frequently seen cancer type globally. Patients who have lung cancer and who get treatment, often complain about nausea and vomiting. Although antiemetic drugs are used for avoiding/eliminating nausea/vomiting in these patients, development of nausea and vomiting cannot be avoided. In recent years reflexology applications aimed for symptom management of cancer patients is attracting attention. Foot reflexology application is preferred as stimulation points are near the skin surface. In this application with special rubbing movements which are applied to the feet, energy being blocked at certain parts of the body is being released and body’s self-healing power is being activated. In this way energy channels of the body are opened and relaxation is obtained while nausea-vomiting are reduced.
Lung cancer is the phenotypic reflection of genetic mutation which occurs as a result of cellular proliferation of air path epithelium cells in an uncontrolled way. Lung cancer which is defined as the epidemic disease of our age ranks in the first row in the world with a death ratio of 19.4% [1,2].
Nausea is described as a disturbing situation which is felt in epigastrium; back part of the throat and along the abdomen with a feeling of fluctuation and vomiting is defined as extraction of stomach content in a strong way through the mouth. Nausea often comes before vomiting or it develops together with it . Nausea-vomiting is one of the symptoms from which patients having lung cancer and getting treatment often complain about . In the treatment of lung cancer, chemotherapeutic agents with medium or high level of emetrogenic risk are often used (Cisplatin, Carboplatin, Vinblastine, etc.). These agents cause various disturbing symptoms such as bone marrow depression, mucositis and nausea-vomiting, the intensity of which varies from mild level to the level which threatens life [5-7]. Despite very effective medical treatments such as serotonin antogonists which are used in recent years for avoiding and controlling nausea-vomiting, nearly 50% of cancer patients experience at least one of the “acute”, “delayed” or “expected” nausea-vomiting incidents. Besides nearly 38-80% of patients experience severe level of nausea-vomiting while 20% of patients refuse or delay their treatment due to nausea-vomiting [8,9]. Nausea-vomiting incidents which cannot be controlled cause undesired symptoms such as sweating, tiredness, hypotension, anorexia, dehydration and weight loss. Besides they can also reduce absorption and extraction of medicines that are used in the treatment. Furthermore, frequency, intensity, duration and disturbance level of nausea-vomiting incidents that are experienced during the day, disrupt social lives of patients, increase their fear and worries, cause for difficulties to arise while they do their daily activities and life qualities are seriously reduced [5,6,10,11].
It is stated that reflexology applications are among the most frequently used (35.2%) complementary therapy methods by the cancer patients who are newly diagnosed and that they have positive effects in reducing nausea-vomiting in cancer patients and in improving functional life [19,20]. As the stimulation points are near the skin surface, most effective way of applying reflexology is related with feet reflexology. There are specific points in the feet where each body organ is being reflected. It is thought that the pressure which is applied at these points can balance all body energy. These points are connected with energy channels, regions, meridians, interior organs and structures. It is considered that in disease incidents, these energy channels in the body are blocked . Since the pressure being applied to reflex areas are effective in the absorption and reduction of calcium, lactate, and uric acid, this process is named as “detoxification”. Foot reflexology application is different from foot massage and it includes more superficial contact and deep pressure at certain areas of the foot (Figure 1). The pressure which is applied to reflex points with special hand and finger techniques enables for stress to be reduced and it causes physiological changes in the body. With this method, self-healing mechanism of body is activated and a physiological relaxation is achieved in the body [21,22]. By opening the energy channels, reflexology reduces stress as being similar to mental-physical therapies and by enabling relaxation and homeostatis, it avoids nausea-vomiting [15,18].
It is stated that many patients experiencing nausea-vomiting despite antiemetic treatment application in cancer patients, applied for foot reflexology applications and that reflexology reduced nausea-vomiting in cancer patients [19,23-25]. By stimulating reflex points in digestion system, foot reflexology application stimulates the reflexes of digestion system from the mouth to the stomach and it helps with the contractions that push the chewed food along the digestive tract . In a doctorate thesis in which the effect of foot reflexology application in lung cancer patients on nausea and vomiting is evaluated, it was found out that foot reflexology application reduced nausea-vomiting (experience, formation, disturbance) . Yang  has determined that reflexology applications had positive effects in reducing nausea and vomiting; while Ozdelikara and Tan  has found out that foot reflexology application in breast cancer patients mitigated nausea-vomiting and gagging (experience, formation, disturbance). At the same time foot reflexology application creates a strong therapeutic impact with the patient; it reduces pain, facilitates harmonization with the disease and improves the harmonization strength. Because touching enables to have a more open and sincere relationship with the patient, it creates an unbiased environment and it improves communication, interaction and patient satisfaction .
As a conclusion, foot reflexology was found to have positive effects the on nausea-vomiting of lung cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Foot reflexology application, the usage of which is increasing in lung cancer patients, can be used as supportive for reducing/avoiding nausea and vomiting.
1. World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer (2012) GLOBACAN 2012: Estimated cancer incidence, mortality and prevalence worldwide in 2012. Access: http://globocan.iarc.fr/Default.aspx
2. Can G (2010) Treatment and care in lung cancer. 1st Publishing. Ipomet Matbaacılık San. ve Tic. Ltd., Istanbul, pp: 28-267.
3. Can G, Erol O, Aydiner A, Topuz E (2011) Non-pharmacological interventions used by cancer patients during chemotherapy in Turkey. Eur J Oncol Nurs 15: 178-184.
4. Akcay D, Gozum S (2012) Evaluation of the effect of education of chemotherapy side effects and home follow-up on the quality of life in patients with breast cancer given chemotherapy. J Breast Health 8: 191-199.
5. Can G (2014) Oncology nursing. 1st Edn. Nobel Medical Publishing, Istanbul pp: 377-767.
6. Erdogan GY (2011) Evaluation of symptoms in cancer patients getting chemotherapy and role of education in symptom management. Postgraduate Thesis. Cumhuriyet University Health Sciences Institute, Sivas.
7. Unsar S, Fındık U, Kurt S, Ozcan H (2007) Home care in patients with cancer and symptom control. Fırat University Medical Journal of Health Sciences 2: 91-106.
8. Arslan M, Ozdemir L (2015) Complementary and alternative therapy methods used in the management of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting. Turk J Oncol 30: 82-89.
9. Kutluturkan S, Karatas T (2014) Complementary medicine in chemotherapy induced vomiting. Bozok Med J 4: 63-65.
10. Sheikhi MA, Ebadi A, Talaeizadeh A, Rahmani H (2015) Alternative methods to treat nausea and vomiting. Chemother Res Pract 2015: 818759.
11. Kurt S, Can G (2013) Reflexology and usage areas. Health J 3: 54-55.
12. Korkan EA, Uyar M (2014) Evidence based approach in pain control: Reflexology. Acıbadem University Health Sciences Journal 5: 11-14.
13. Tabur H, Başaran E (2009) Introduction to reflexology. 1st Edn. Book friendly Publishing House, İstanbul, pp: 20-40.
14. Lee J, Han M, Chung Y, Kim J, Choi J (2011) Effects of foot reflexology on fatigue, sleep and pain: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Korean Acad Nurs 41: 821-833.
15. Wilhelm AZ (2009) Step by step health: Reflexology. 1st Edn. Dharma Publishing, Istanbul, pp: 14-31.
16. Baser M, Tascı S (2015) Complementary and supportive applications with evidence based guidelines. Akademisyen Medical Publishing House, Ankara, pp: 111-123.
17. Tascı E (2011) Alternative application for side effects of gynecologic cancer treatment. SDU Medical Faculty Journal 18: 72-77.
18. Soutar G (2010) Reflexology for hands and feet. Translation: Evyapan T. Reflexology for hands and feet, 1th edition. Friend Publishing, Ankara, pp: 3-30.
19. Ernst E, Posadzki P, Lee MS (2011) Reflexology: An update of systematic review of randomised clinical trials. Maturitas 68: 116-120.
20. Wilkinson S, Lockhart K, Gambles M, Storey L (2008) Reflexology for symptom relief in patients with cancer. Cancer Nurs TM 31: 354-360.
21. Turan N, Ozturk A, Kaya N (2010) A new responsibility in nursing: Complementary therapy. Maltepe University Nursing Science and Art Journal 3: 94-100.
22. Yalcıner B (2015) Reflexology from yesterday till today. 1st Edn. Volga Publishing, pp: 65-80.
23. Kim MY (2011) Meta-analysis of the effectiveness on foot reflexology for cancer patients. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Sahmyook University, Seoul.
24. Genc F (2010) Influence of acupressure application on nausea-vomiting and anxiety relating with chemotherapy in breast cancer patients. Doctorate thesis. Ataturk University Health Sciences Institute, Department of Interior Diseases, Erzurum.
25. Min-Young K, Pok-Ja O (2011) Meta-analysis of the effectiveness on foot-reflexo-massage for cancer patients. J Korean Oncol Nurs 11: 127-135.
26. Ozdelikara A, Tan M (2017) The effect of reflexology on chemotherapy induced nausea, vomiting and fatigue in breast cancer patients. Asia Pac J Oncol Nurs 4: 241-249.
27. Pekmezci HP (2018) Impact of foot reflexology application on nausea, vomiting on the sleep quality in lung cancer patients getting chemotherapy. Karadeniz Technical Health Sciences Institute, Unpublished Doctorate Thesis, Trabzon.
28. Yang J (2005) The effects of foot reflexology on nausea vomiting and fatigue of breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi 35: 177-185.
29. Shermeh SM, Bozorgzad P, Gha-Fourian AR, Ebadi A, Razmjoei N, et al. (2009) Effect of foot reflex massage on sternotomy pain after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Iran J Crit Care Nurs 2: 51-54.
- International Journal of Medical and Clinical Imaging(ISSN:2573-1084)
- BioMed Research Journal(ISSN:2578-8892)
- Journal of Neurosurgery Imaging and Techniques(ISSN:2473-1943)
- International Journal of Internal Medicine and Geriatrics
- Journal of Rheumatology Research(ISSN:2641-6999)
- Journal of Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis Research(ISSN: 2643-0541)
- International Journal of Radiography Imaging Radiation Therapy(ISSN:2642-0392)