|Toshinari Meguro*, Miki Taniguchi, Manabu Onishi, Yasuyuki Miyoshi and Shigeki Ono|
|Corresponding Author: Toshinari Meguro, Department of Neurosurgery, Kawasaki Medical School, 2-6-1 Nakasange, Kita-ku, Okayama City, 700-8505, Okayama, Japan|
|Received: April 02, 2019; Accepted: April 08, 2019;|
|Citation: Meguro T, Taniguchi M, Onishi M, Miyoshi Y & Ono S. (2020) A Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Originating from the Posterior Meningeal Artery. J Neurosurg Imaging Techniques, 5(1): 221-223.|
|Copyrights: ©2020 Meguro T, Taniguchi M, Onishi M, Miyoshi Y & Ono S. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.|
The authors present a case of an aberrant origin of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA), which was found incidentally during examination for stenosis of the middle cerebral artery. The PICA originated from the posterior meningeal artery. The embryology of the anomaly is briefly discussed.
Keywords: Posterior inferior cerebellar artery, Posterior meningeal artery, Aberrant origin
Abbreviations: PICA: Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery; PMA: Posterior Meningeal Artery
The posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) is the most important, largest, and most variable of all the cerebellar arteries . The PICA usually originates from the vertebral artery at the anterolateral aspect of the brain stem. Variations in its origin are reported that from a hypoglossal artery, proatlantal artery, internal carotid artery, and so on [2,3]. We present a case demonstrating an unusual origin of PICA arising from the posterior meningeal artery (PMA).
A 58 year old woman with a history of hypertension was admitted because of transient weakness of the left extremities. Because a magnetic resonance angiogram showed a stenosis of a right middle cerebral artery, a digital subtraction angiogram was requested by a referring physician to evaluate the patient for vascular disease. A right common carotid angiogram showed moderate-to-severe arteriosclerotic stenosis of a right middle cerebral artery. And a left vertebral angiogram demonstrated a large PMA arising from the third segment of the vertebral artery (Figure 1). The course of the PMA corresponded to the tonsillohemispheric branch of the left PICA. The proximal portion of the left PICA did not arise from the distal vertebral artery. The patient was discharged on medical management for transient ischemic attack without complications.
The PMA arises from the vertebral artery above the level of the arch of the atlas just below the foramen magnum. This artery usually supplies the occipital dura mater, the falx cerebelli, the tentorium cerebelli and posterior part of the falx cerebri [4-6] and it does not supply the cerebellum. However anastomosis of the PMA and PICA has been recognized , only nine cases have been reported in the literature. They are one case of PICA originating from the PMA , five cases of PMA originating from the PICA [4,5,8,9] and three cases of PICA obstruction with collateral circulation from PMA [6,10,11]. In only one case that Ogawa et al.  reported, the tonsillohemispheric branch of the PICA arose from the PMA, just like our case.
The hypothesis of Tanohata et al.  is clear about the possible embryogenesis of the anomalous origin of the PICA and the PMA. They reported two cases of anomalous origin of the PMA from the PICA, and explained for this anomalous origin as follows. The primitive blood vessels of the head differentiate into three main strata (the external, the dural and the cerebral) in the 12 mm to 20 mm embryo. Anastomotic channels exist between these three vascular systems prior to such differentiation. Consequently, anastomosing channels are likely to exist between the primitive vessels of the future PICA and the future PMA. The anomalous origin results from persistence of one of the preexisting anastomotic channels between the primitive vessels of the future PICA and the future PMA, with regression of the proximal portion of the PMA at this time. The anomalous origin of the PICA from the PMA might occur with regression of the proximal PICA by the similar mechanism.
The PICA arising from the PMA is clinically important. In neurosurgical and neuroendovascular intervention, knowledge of this type of anomalous connection would be useful for preventing inadvertent damage of the medulla or the cerebellum.
DISCLOSURE OF INTEREST
The authors declare that they have no competing interest.
1. Osborn AG (1999) The vertebrobasilar system. In: Osborn AG editor. Diagnostic Cerebral Angiography. 2nd Edn. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Willkins, pp: 173-194.
2. Margolis MT, Newton TH (1974) The posterior inferior cerebellar artery. In: Newton TH, Potts DG, editors. Radiology of the skull and brain. Vol 2, Book 2. St. Louis: Mosby, pp: 1710-1774.
3. Ahuja A, Graves VB, Crosby DL, Strother CM (1992) Anomalous origin of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery from the internal carotid artery. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 13: 1625-1626.
4. Newton TH, Mani RL (1974) The vertebral artery. In: Newton TH, Potts DG, editors. Radiology of the skull and brain. Vol 2, Book 2. St. Louis: Mosby, pp: 1659-1709.
5. Tanohata K, Maehara T, Noda M, Katoh H, Sugiyama S, et al. (1987) Anomalous origin of the posterior meningeal artery from the lateral medullary segment of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Neuroradiology 29: 89-92.
6. Tsutsumi M, Kazekawa K, Aikawa H, Iko M, Kodama T, et al. (2007) Development of unusual collateral channel from the posterior meningeal artery after endovascular proximal occlusion of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 47: 503-505.
7. Ogawa T, Fujita F, lnugami A, Shishido F, Higano S, et al. (1991) Anomalous origin of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery from the posterior meningeal artery. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 12: 186.
8. Okuno S, Touho H, Ohnishi H, Karasawa J (1998) Ruptured aneurysm at the bifurcation of the posterior meningeal artery from the proximal posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 140: 629-630.
9. Aronson JP, Murray PJ, Ogilvy CS (2008) Rupture of a pseudoaneurysm of the posterior meningeal artery at its anomalous origin from the posteroinferior cerebellar artery: Case report. Neurosurgery 63: E608.
10. Chang SW, Kakarla UK, Sharma GK, Spetzler RF (2009) Posterior inferior cerebellar artery origin thrombosis with aneurysm of collateralized posterior meningeal artery presenting as subarachnoid hemorrhage: Case report. Neurosurgery 65: E818-819.
11. Arai A, Miyamoto H, Ashida N, Kohmura E (2012) Spontaneous occlusion of PICA-involved dissecting aneurysm with development of a collateral channel from the posterior meningeal artery. No Shinkei Geka 40: 997-1002.
- Journal of Psychiatry and Psychology Research(ISSN:2640-6136)
- Chemotherapy Research Journal(ISSN:2642-0236)
- Advance Research on Alzheimers and Parkinsons Disease
- Journal of Nursing and Occupational Health
- International Journal of Internal Medicine and Geriatrics
- Journal of Oral Health and Dentistry(ISSN:2638-499X)
- Journal of Blood Transfusions and Diseases(ISSN:2641-4023)