|Dereje Shibru*, Berhan Tamir, Firew Kasa and Gebeyehu Goshu|
|Corresponding Author: Dereje Shibru, Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture and Natural Resource, Gambella University, Gambella|
|Received: December 29, 2018; Accepted: February 07, 2019; Published: April 13, 2019;|
|Citation: Shibru D, Tamir B, Kasa F & Goshu G. (2019) Effect of Season, Parity, Exotic Gene Level and Lactation Stage on Milk Yield and Composition. J Genet Cell Biol, 2(1): 56-61.|
|Copyrights: ©2019 Shibru D, Tamir B, Kasa F & Goshu G. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.|
The study used twelve year recorded data’s analysis for milk yield and composition of Holstein Friesian crossbred dairy cows in Holleta agricultural research center dairy farm. Data’s were summarized and categorized based on season, exotic blood level (genotype), parity and lactation stages. The summarized data’s were season (219 wet, 1055 dry), exotic blood level (1, 117 for 50%, 115 for 62.5% and 42 for >75%), Parity (474 for parity-2, 356 parity-3, 270 for parity-4 and 174 for parity-5), Lactation stage (483 for early, 445 for mid and 346 for late). Analysis of means and standard errors of mean for the parameter studied was estimated using SAS. The General Linear Model was utilized for analyses of variance of data on average monthly milk yield and milk composition for the effects of season, parity, Friesian cross blood level and stages of lactation. Season significantly affected milk yield, fat and protein percentage composition. Higher yield and fat % composition record in dry season whereas higher protein% during wet season. Genotype significantly affected milk yield where yield of 62.5% and >75% crossbred cows were significantly higher than that of 50% crossbred cows. Difference in dam Parity significantly affected milk yield and protein content of milk where higher milk yield and protein content was recorded in dam parity five. An increasing trend observed in milk yield and protein content as dam parity advances. Mean monthly milk yield, percent of protein and total solid was varied significantly between different lactation stages where protein and Total solid percentage was significantly higher in late stages of lactation. In overall milk yield was significantly affected by season, genotype, parity and stages of lactation but it is negatively correlated with the percentage of fat, protein and total solid. Season, parity and stages of lactation significantly affected protein content of milk whereas milk composition strongly correlated with each other.
The research study used data’s of Holleta Agricultural Research Centre dairy Farm, in the central high lands of Ethiopia. Holleta agriculture Research center Dairy farm was established for research work. The farm has pure boran breed and its cross with different crosses level of Holstein Friesian.
It is located in central highland of Oromia special zone surrounding Addis Ababa at latitude of 38°30’ E, 9°3’ N and 29 km west of Addis Ababa on high way to Ambo. It has an altitude of 2400 m above sea level and receives mean annual rain fall of 1100 mm with bimodal distribution 70% of which occurs during the main rainy season (June to September) and 30% during the small rainy season (February to April) and the annual temperature of 11-22°C with relative humidity of 50.4%. The soil type in the area is largely nitosol and major crops grown are teff, wheat, barley, oats, potatoes, oil crops and pulses.
Record data analysis of Holeta Agricultural Research Centre Dairy Farm
The data for this study was taken from Holleta Agricultural Research Center dairy farm. Twelve years records of Holstein Friesian crossbred cows were used for analysis. Lactation records of cows having their second up to fifth calving between 2003 and 2014 were used for analysis. The effects of season, parity, genotype (exotic cross blood level) and lactation stage on milk yield and milk composition were evaluated. Data for analysis were classified according to season, genotype (exotic cross blood level), lactation stage and parity. On the basis of main prevailing climatic conditions, the year was classified into two seasons, the wet season from June to September in which the area gets its major rainfall and the dry season from October to May which receives small rainfall. Those data records in these two seasons were used to see the effect of season on milk parameters. To see the effects of lactation stages on milk parameters, data’s were categorized into three stages of lactation (Early stage of lactation: 7-105 days; Mid-stage of lactation: 106 to 210 days; Late stage of lactation: above 211 days). The data’s were further divided into 4 categories viz 2, 3, 4 and 5 parity to study the effect of parity on milk parameters. Cows were also categorized based on their genotype (exotic cross blood level) viz 50%, 62.5% and ≥ 75% exotic blood level to study the effect genotype on milk parameters.
The effects of season, parity, lactation stage and exotic cross level on milk production and compositions will be examined using least square technique of fitting constants.
DATA MANAGEMENT AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
Analysis of means and standard errors of mean for the traits studied was estimated using SAS 9.1 of 2008. The General Linear Model (GLM) will be utilized for variance analyses of data on average daily milk yield, including the effects of season, parity, Friesian cross blood level, stages of lactation and the interactions between these effects. Differences will be considered significant at P<0.05. The following model will be used to test:
Yijkl=µ + ai + bj + ck + dl + abij + acik + adil + bcjk + bdjl + cdlk + abcijkl + eijkl
Yijkl=The daily milk yield
μ=The overall mean
ai=The effect of season (i=dry, rainy season)
bj=The effect of Friesian blood level (j=50%, 62.5%, 75%)
ck=The effect of the dams parity (k=2, 3, 4, 5)
dl=Effect of stage of lactation(l= Early, Mid and Late)
abij, acik, bcjk, adil, bdjl, cdlk abcijk the respective interactions between the main effects and eijkl of the random residual effect. The interaction effect will be considered if the main effects are significant.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
This paper was tried to show the effect of season, blood level of Holstein Friesian cross, parity and stages of lactation on milk yield and composition. These were:
Effects of season on milk yield and composition of dairy cows
The effects of season on milk yield and milk composition of dairy cows are presented in Table 1. A significant mean difference (p<0.05) was observed in milk yield, percent of fat and protein due to season. Higher yield and percent fat was recorded during dry season but for protein during wet season. As result of this study season didn’t significantly affect milk percentage composition of total solid. Opposing to this finding, Baset et al.  reported that season didn’t affect milk yield. Similar finding were reported by Sharma et al.  that the overall mean for fat content of milk were 4.53 percent which was almost similar(4.66) with this study. Contrary to this Sharma et al.  also reported that TS content varied among seasons being highest in winter. In contrast to this study in the same location, Mesfin and Getachew  reported higher milk fat content from milk sampled in July to September. The same study also reported finding which agrees with this finding that Friesian crossbred dairy cows have shown high protein content in milk during rainy season. Similar results were reported by Cheruiyot et al.  that fat content was significantly higher (3.97 + 0.24%) in the dry season than in the wet season (2.59 + 0.24%)whereas Casein (protein) content was higher in milk sampled in the wet season (3.27 + 0.06%) than in the dry season (2.88 + 0.06%). Similar study also reported that TS contents were not affected by the month of sampling. Similar results were reported by that the milk protein level in the hot month was less than wet season due to the decrease in the casein. Contrary to this earlier study in the same location by Mesfin and Getachew  reported that milk total solids content of Boran-Friesian crossbred dairy cows was highest in July to September and the lowest in January to March. Effects of genotype on milk yield and composition of dairy cows
The effects of genotype on milk yield and composition of dairy cows are presented in Table 1.
Milk yield of 62.5% and >75% crossbred cows were significantly higher than that of 50% crossbred cows. Average monthly milk yield of cows of 50%, 62.5% and >75% crossbred were 215.59, 231.09 and 232.81 liters, respectively, which differed significantly (p<0.05). Though there was no significant differences in milk components, milk protein of 62.5% crossbred cows was lower in figure than the other. Mesfin and Getachew  and Turki et al.  finding agrees with this study on milk yield that high merit cows had the highest yield of milk, whereas the low merit cows had the lowest yield of milk fat, protein, and lactose concentrations. Similar finding were reported by that in the highland climatic zone, the mean MYL for cows with 50 percent B. taurus genes was 2.6 times higher than that of the indigenous cows and cows with exotic inheritance of 75 percent B. taurus genes showed almost a similar performance, with an MYL 2.7 times higher than that of local cows. Similar finding was reported Nantapo  where milk yield and fat content of milk differ in in different Genotypic. On contrary to this study Haile et al.  and Islam et al.  reported that increasing the proportion of exotic genes in a cow leads to decreased milk component levels.
Effects of parity on milk yield and composition of dairy cows
The effects of parity on milk yield and composition of dairy cows are presented in Table 1.
Difference in Parity of cow significantly (p<0.05) affected milk yield and protein content of milk. Significantly higher milk yield and protein content was recorded on dam parity five. An increasing trend observed in milk yield and protein content as dam parity advances. Similarly Bath et al.  finding justified this, where an increase in milk yield with the increasing age was partially attributed to higher body weight, whereas the remaining 20% is the result of increased development of the udder during recurring pregnancies which results in larger mass of digestive system and mammary glands for synthesis of milk. Almost similar results were reported by Niraj et al.  where mean lactation milk yield was found to be 2503.6 ± 76.8 L (242.9 ± 2.6 L/month). In agreement with this study Afzal et al.  reported that parity significantly affected milk production where more milk in cows with greater parities than those with lesser parities. Lee and Kim  also reported finding in agreement with this results that there is an increase in milk yield towards 5th parity and decline thereafter.
Effects of stage of lactation on milk yield and composition of dairy cows
The least squares means (LSM) of milk yield and composition of the different stages of lactation crossbred dairy cows in Holleta agricultural research center of dairy farms is indicated in Table 1. Mean monthly milk yield was varied significantly (p<0.01) between different lactation stages. As lactation stage advances there was decreasing in milk yield and increasing states of total solid % and protein. In agreement with this Baset et al.  study reported highest milk yield was observed in the early lactation stage while the lowest yield was recorded in late stages of lactation. Although, the fat percentage composition was not significantly affected by advancing lactation stages there is an increasing trend of figures. Similar result was reported by Natapo  that record of highest milk yield in the early lactation stage and lowest yield in late lactation. Mahmoud et al.  reported similar results higher milk yield in the early lactation stage then it decreased gradually until the end of lactation. Mushtaq and Subhan  finding reported similarly for higher yield in early lactation but differently vise-versa for mid and late lactation in milk yield.
Interaction effect of seasons, genotype, parity and lactation stage on milk yield and composition of dairy cows
In overall from the findings it can be concluded as milk yields of cows were significantly affected by season, exotic gene blood level, dam parity and lactation stage. Season influenced Fat and protein percentage. Season, parity and lactation stage significantly influenced milk protein percent whereas Fat% was more significantly affected by season. Milk yield and fat% significantly influenced due to interaction of season with genotype whereas interaction of parity with lactation stage significantly influenced percent for total solid of milk. Moreover milk yield negatively correlated with the percentage of fat, protein and TS. The percentage of fat positively correlated with the percentage of protein and Total solid and vise-versa.
1. Shapiro BI, Gebru G, Desta S, Negassa A, Nigussie K, et al. (2017) Ethiopia livestock sector analysis. ILRI Project Report. Nairobi, Kenya: International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI).
2. Mackle TR, Bryant AM, Petch SF, Hill JP, Auldist MJ (1999) Nutritional influences on the composition of milk from cows of different phenotypes in New Zealand. J Dairy Sci 82: 172-180.
3. Welter KC, Martin CM, de Palma AS, Martins MM, Dos Reis BR, et al. (2016) Canola oil in lactating dairy cow diets reduces milk saturated fatty acids and improves its Omega-3 and oleic fatty acid content. PLoS One 11: e0151876.
4. Hang KF, Hayes JF, Moxley JE, Monardes HG (1982) Environmental influences on protein content and composition of bovine milk. J Dairy Sci 65: 1993-1998.
5. Stoop WM, Bovenhuis H, Heck JM, Van Arendonk JA (2009) Effect of lactation stage and energy status on milk fat composition of Holstein-Friesian cows. J Dairy Sci 92: 1469-1478.
6. Coleman J, Pierce KM, Berry DP, Brennan A, Horan B (2010) Increasing milk solids production across lactation through genetic selection and intensive pasture-based feed system. J Dairy Sci 93: 4302-4317.
7. Palladino RA, Buckley F, Prendiville R, Murphy JJ, Callan J, et al. (2010) A comparison between Holstein-Friesian and Jersey dairy cows and their F 1 hybrid on milk fatty acid composition under grazing conditions. J Dairy Sci 93: 2176-2184.
8. Gustavsson F, Buitenhuis AJ, Johansson M, Bertelsen HP, Glantz M, et al. (2014) Effects of breed and casein genetic variants on protein profile in milk from Swedish Red, Danish Holstein and Danish Jersey cows. J Dairy Sci 97: 3866-3877.
9. Yang L, Yang Q, Yi M, Pang ZH, Xiong BH (2013) Effects of seasonal change and parity on raw milk composition and related indices in Chinese Holstein cows in northern China. J Dairy Sci 96: 6863-6869.
10. Sharma RB, Kumar M, Pathak V (1985) Effect of different seasons on cross-bred cow milk composition and paneer yield in sub-Himalayan region. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 15: 528-530.
11. Auldist MJ, Walsh BJ, Thomson NA (1998) Seasonal and lactational influences on bovine milk composition in New Zealand. J Dairy Res 65: 401-411.
12. Baset M, Huque K, Sarker N, Hossain M, Islam M (2016) Effect of season, genotype and lactation on milk yield and composition of local and crossbred dairy cows reared under different feed base region. Bangladesh J Livestock Res 19: 50-65.
13. Mesfin R, Getachew A (2007) Evaluation of grazing regimes on milk composition of Borana and Boran-Friesian crossbred dairy cattle at Holetta research center, Ethiopia. Livestock Research for Rural Development 19.
14. Cheruiyot EK, Bett RC, Amimo, JO, Mujibi FN (2018) Milk composition for admixed dairy cattle in Tanzania. Front Genet 9: 142.
15. Turki IY, Mawhip AM, Muna EK, Miriam SA, Omer ME, et al. (2012) Effect of feeding systems on milk yield and composition of local and cross bred dairy cows. Int J Sci Technol 2: 5-9.
16. Nantapo CWT (2012) Effect of stage of lactation on milk yield, somatic cell counts, mineral and fatty acid profiles in pasture-based Friesian, Jersey and Friesian × Jersey cows. MSc thesis.
17. Haile A, Joshi BK, Ayalew W, Tegegne A, Singh A (2008) Genetic evaluation of Ethiopian Boran cattle and their crosses with Holstein Friesian for growth performance in central Ethiopia. J Anim Breed Genet 128: 133-140.
18. Islam MA, Alam MK, Islam MN, Khan MAS, Ekeberg D, et al. (2014) Principal milk components in buffalo, Holstein cross, indigenous cattle and red Chittagong cattle from Bangladesh. Asian Australas J Anim Sci 27: 886-897.
19. Bath DL, Dickinson FN, Tucker HA, Appleman RD (1985) Dairy cattle: Principle, practices, problems, profits. 3rd ed. Lea and Febiger, Washington Square, Philadelphia.
20. Niraj K, Berihu G, Nigus A, Etsay K (2017) Performance of crossbred dairy cows under farmers’ management in and around Debre Zeit, Ethiopia. EJVSAP 1: 66-72.
21. Afzal M, Anwar M, Mirza MA (2007) Some factors affecting milk yield and lactation length in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Pak Vet J 27: 113-117.
22. Lee JY, Kim IH (2006) Advancing parity is associated with high milk production at the cost of body condition and increased periparturient disorders in dairy herds. J Vet Sci 7: 161-166.
23. Mahmoud NMA, El Zubeir IEM, Fadlelmoula AA (2014) Effect of stage of lactation on milk yield and composition of first kidder Damascus does in the Sudan. J Anim Prod Adv 4: 355-362.
24. Mushtaq A, Subhan MQ (2009) Variation in milk composition and its relationship with physiological states and management in crossbred cattle under tropical condition. Technical Article- Engormix, Pakistan.
- Journal of Veterinary and Marine Sciences
- Journal of Agriculture and Forest Meteorology Research(ISSN:2642-0449)
- Advances in Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology Research
- Food and Nutrition-Current Research(ISSN:2638-1095)
- Journal of Genomic Medicine and Pharmacogenomics(ISSN:2474-4670)
- Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine(ISSN:2641-6948)
- Proteomics and Bioinformatics(ISSN:2641-7561)