|Abu Shamsieh Rami and Hojouj Mohammad IM*|
|Corresponding Author: : Hojouj Mohammad IM, Department of Oncology and Medical Radiology, 2SE Dnipropetrovsk Medical Academy of Health, Ministry of Ukraine, VolodymyrVernadskii str., 9, Dnipro, 49044, Ukraine|
|Received: December 21, 2018; Accepted: February 05, 2019; Published: May 27, 2019;|
|Citation: Rami AS & Hojouj Mohammad IM. (2019) Carrying out Laparoscopic Appendectomy in Women with a Multiple Pregnancy. J Cancer Sci Treatment, 1(2): 35-39.|
|Copyrights: ©2019 Rami AS & Hojouj Mohammad IM. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.|
Acute appendicitis is the most common surgical pathology in women with multiple pregnancies, which threatens the life of the mother and the newborns. The incidence of acute appendicitis in women with multiple pregnancies is, according to different data. In a timely manner, appendectomy is not always possible to avoid obstetric and surgical complications, which occur in 17% of cases. According to the latest data, 50% of pregnant women with acute appendicitis enter surgical hospitals 48 h after the onset of the disease, as they are initially hospitalized in gynecological hospitals with suspicion of the threat of termination of pregnancy. Thus, in most pregnant women appendectomy is performed more than a day after the onset of the disease.
Keywords: Acute appendicitis, Pregnancy, Laparoscopic appendectomy, Antibiotic therapy
In a timely manner, appendectomy is not always possible to avoid obstetric and surgical complications, which occur in 17% of cases [3,8-11]. The frequency of diagnostic errors in acute appendicitis in women with multiple pregnancies ranges from 11.9-44.0%, 12-44% with hypo- and over-diagnosis being equally permissible, with a frequency ratio of 25% and 31%, respectively.
According to the latest data, 40-55% of pregnant women with acute appendicitis enter surgical hospitals 48 h after the onset of the disease, as they are initially hospitalized in gynecological hospitals with suspicion of the threat of termination of pregnancy. Thus, in most pregnant women appendectomy is performed more than a day after the onset of the disease [12-14]. Therefore, in pregnant women, especially in later terms, the destructive forms of acute appendicitis occur 5-6 times more often than in non-pregnant ones. Primarily in the III trimester, the destructive forms of acute appendicitis become complicated by perforation and widespread peritonitis; occur three times more often than in first trimester and 2 times more often than in the second trimester of pregnancy [15-13].
Emergency surgery is now impossible to imagine without laparoscopy. The rapid development of laparoscopic surgery led to a reassessment of the role of laparoscopy in pregnant women, as a result of which laparoscopic appendectomy became a reasonable alternative to open surgery at different pregnancy times [16,17]. Multiple pregnancies aren’t considered a contradiction to laparoscopy and laparoscopic appendectomy. In acute appendicitis in patients with multiple pregnancies, an undeniable advantage of the laparoscopic method is the possibility of verifying the diagnosis, which often allows us to limit diagnostic laparoscopy, avoiding unjustified appendectomy. The greatest problem in carrying out laparoscopic surgery in this contingent of patients in conditions of pneumoperitoneum is the possible violations of blood circulation in the mother and fetus. One of the options for a compromise between laparoscopic and open interventions is the use of laparoscopically assisted surgery (LAO). The peculiarities of LAO are that the stage of mobilization of a remote or resected organ is laparoscopically, partially and completely, and its removal and reconstruction is carried out in an open way through mini-access up to 4 cm.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Under our supervision, between 2010 and 2014 there were 48 women with multiple pregnancies diagnosed with acute appendicitis. 18 (37.5%), women underwent diagnostic laparoscopy and 30 (62.5%) with laparoscopically assisted appendectomy. The range of gestation was 6 to 36 weeks. Pregnant women had 16 (33.3%) in the first trimester, 24 (50%) in the second trimester and 8 (16.7%) in the third trimester.
In recent years, we are expanding the indications for the use of diagnostic laparoscopy in cases of suspected acute appendicitis in women with multiple pregnancies in order to shorten the duration of the dynamic observation of patients, which causes the loss of time and progression of the disease, significantly reduce the number of diagnostic errors and reduce the frequency of unreasonable appendectomy. The patients were activated without threat of termination of pregnancy 6-8 h after the operation; the average duration of the bed-day in the surgical department was 4.2 to 5 after which patients were transferred for further treatment and supervision to the obstetrics and gynecology department.
Prevention of premature termination of pregnancy, as a rule, begins in the preoperative period, we continue during the operation and in the postoperative period regardless of the gestation period. In the first trimester of pregnancy, the use of dydrogesterone or natural micronisine progesterone is indicated. In the II-III trimesters it is advisable to use tocolytics. In order to prevent postoperative inflammatory complications and intrauterine infection of the fetus, pregnant women, operated on for destructive appendicitis, were prescribed antibiotic therapy. In the first trimester, semi-synthetic penicillins and from the second trimester, semi-synthetic penicillins or cephalosporins in average therapeutic doses for 5-7 days.
When prescribing drug therapy in the post-operation period, the recommendations of the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on the safety of use during pregnancy, as well as the normatively-decreed documents of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine were taken into account.
All operations were performed under endotracheal anesthesia. In the first trimester of pregnancy, the technique of laparoscopy does not differ from the standard technique. Carboxyperitoneum was created up to a pressure of 10-12 mm Hg with the needle Veresa. For examination of the abdominal cavity laparoscopes with optics of 30° were used, which make it possible to effectively inspect the ileocecal region in most of the observations without introducing additional manipulators. The slope of the operating table on the left side greatly facilitates the laparoscopy.
Beginning with the second trimester of pregnancy, the Hassen open laparoscopy technique was used to prevent needle injuries. Hearing of a pregnant uterus , access was made depending on the size of the uterus . Troakar was introduced along the middle line just above the upper edge of the uterine fundus. Carrying out a diagnostic laparoscopy in late pregnancy, they took special care, not allowing "blind" manipulation in the abdominal cavity. If the appendix was not visualized, a 5 mm trocar for the manipulator was inserted above the bosom .
Depending on the anatomical situation, the operation was performed using 2 or 3 trocar. In the case of double-barrel access, the appendix was grasped at the apex and removed together with the trocar onto the anterior abdominal wall, after which appendectomy was performed. One of the conditions for a successful operation is the correct location of the second trocar above the base of the appendix. With an insufficiently movable dome of the cecum, even a slight deviation of the site of trocar insertion from the optimal leads to significant technical difficulties, which usually cause the conversion or expansion of the trocar wound [21-23].
Three trocars for appendectomy were used for a short and inactive mesentery of the appendix, atypical appendectomy, gangrenous and perforated appendicitis, as well as peria-pendicular fusions that limit the mobility of the appendectomy . In this case, the mesentery was crossed in the abdominal cavity, applying regimes of mono- and bi-polar coagulation. After the intersection of the mesentery, the mobilized process, as in the two-tube technique, was removed from the abdominal cavity together with the trocar. Direct appendectomy was performed in a ligature invagination way, peritonizing the stump of the appendix with a suture seam. During laparoscopy, adequate infusion therapy was performed with the use of tocolytic therapy [25,26].
Administration of 4-6 g of magnesium sulfate dissolved in 100 ml of physiological solution is carried out intravenously (iv) for 30-45 min, after which they switch to continuous iv injection at a rate of 2-4 g/h until cessation or significant contraction of contractions [27-30]. Sometimes after the termination of labor, minor contractions of the uterus continue. In this case, a vaginal examination is performed regularly. If the cervical dilatation is continued, the dose is increased or another tocolytic agent is prescribed for the prevention of premature birth .
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
In 18 (37.5%) patients with multiple pregnancies, the initial diagnosis of acute appendicitis was not confirmed. The first trimester of pregnancy was in 10 (20, 8%), II - in 6 (12, 5%) and III - in 2 (4, 2%) women. In one patient with a gestation period of 36 weeks, the clinical picture simulating acute appendicitis was caused by torsion of the fallopian tube together with a cystically altered ovary. The ovarian tube was defecated. In 4 (8, 3%) patients in I and II trimesters there were ruptures of ovarian cysts. In 2 (4.2%) patients in I trimester acute pancreatitis was diagnosed and 9 (18.7%) women in I and II trimesters had no acute diseases of the abdominal cavity organs.
Of the 30 patients who underwent laparoscopically assisted appendectomy, the first trimester of pregnancy was in 8 (26.7%), the second trimester in 16 (53.3%) and the third trimester in 6 (20%). Phlegmonous appendicitis was found in 14 (46.7%) pregnant women, gangrenous - in 6 (20%) and perforated - in 3 (10%).
The appendix was located in the right iliac region in 36 (75%) patients, of which 20 (41.7%) of women had a pregnancy period corresponding to the second and third trimesters. Atypical location was observed only in 8 (16.7%) pregnant women. Localizations of the appendix in the small pelvis - in 12 (25%) patients, in the subhepatic space - in 4 (8.3%), retrocetically - in 1 (2%) did not complicate the laparoscopic operation. In the first case, we observed in the right ileal fossa moderate subcutaneous emphysema within 2 days, spontaneously resolved without the use of any measures. Subcutaneous emphysema was caused by gas injection through the Veresk needle. There were no intraoperative complications. In the postoperative period, an inflammatory infiltrate in the anterior abdominal wall appeared in one patient. To prevent purulent-inflammatory complications, avoid contact of the appendix with the tissues of the anterior abdominal wall. No intra-abdominal complications were noted .
In 6 patients with gangrenous appendicitis complicated by unrestricted serous and serous-fibrinous peritonitis and in 3 patients with perforated appendicitis, the operation became more complicated. The exudate was carefully aspirated; the places of its accumulation (right lateral canal and small pelvis) were washed with physiological solution with dioxidine to clean wash water . We consider the indication in such situations of mandatory drainage of the abdominal cavity with the introduction of 4 aseptic per day. Drainage in all cases was removed after 2-3 days. Video laparoscopy makes it possible to adequately place the drainage in the abdominal cavity under the vision control, providing conditions for complete drainage.
Laparoscopically assisted appendectomy using 2 trocars managed to perform 12 (40%), 3 trocars - 18 (37.5%) to pregnant women. Conversions to the open operation were not conducted. In 3 (10%) patients there was a transition from a two-barreled technique of laparoscopically assisted appendectomy to a three-barrel. Post-operative complications were not observed .
The advantage of laparoscopically assisted appendectomy in comparison with laparoscopic appendectomy is a shorter exposure to the pregnant uterus of strained carboxyperitoneum and a decrease in its negative impact on the fetus . The procedure of the operation involves the creation of carboxyperitoneum only at the stage of diagnostic laparoscopy and, if necessary, for the final sanitization of the abdominal cavity. For laparoscopic appendectomy, carboxyperitoneum is necessary throughout the operation. The average duration of laparoscopically assisted appendectomy in pregnant women was 46.4 min, the average duration of carboxyperitoneum was 21.8 min. The duration of carboxyperitoneum with laparoscopically assisted appendectomy using 2 trocars is less than using 3 trocar [36,37].
After discharge from the hospital 2 women at their request pregnancy was artificially interrupted in the early period. Cesarean section was performed according to obstetric indications of 6 (20%) to women and was not associated with a delayed appendectomy or laparoscopy. In 22 (73.3%) women, the births took place without any peculiarities. All babies were healthy.
Our experience of performing laparoscopic operations with acute appendicitis in pregnant women suggests that surgeons performing interventions should have extensive experience in urgent surgery, flawlessly own laparoscopic diagnostics and the technique of endoscopic and traditional surgeries. The use of the laparoscopic method in the surgery of acute appendicitis in pregnant women contributes to improving the quality of diagnosis and treatment of fewer postoperative complications, reducing the number of bed-days. The further introduction of these methods in urgent surgery is undoubtedly promising and deserves attention .
1. Acute appendicitis is the most common surgical pathology in women with multiple pregnancies, which threatens the life of the mother and the fetuses.
2. Laparoscopically assisted appendectomy in women with multiple pregnancies provides low invasiveness, reliability and high economic efficiency.
3. The advantage of laparoscopically assisted appendectomy in comparison with laparoscopic appendectomy is a shorter exposure to a pregnant uterus of strained carboxiperitoneum and a decrease in its negative impact on the fetus.
1. Saveliev BC (2004).Guide for emergency surgery of the abdominal cavity. ISBN 5-8249-0103-1.
2. Barnes SL, Shane MD, Schoemann MB, Bernard AC, Boulanger BR (2004) Laparoscopic appendectomy after 30 weeks pregnancy: Report of two cases and description of technique. Am Surg 70: 733-736.
3. Cardenoso L, Teijelos A, Moro J (1997) Apendicitsiуgestacion. Clin Invest Ginecol Obstet 7: 277-286.
4. Korkan IP (1992) Laparoscopy in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in pregnant women. Surgery 1992: 63-66.
5. Bensaid F, Elbamoussi L, Moussaoui D (1996) Lesurgencesabdominalesnongynecologiquesaucoursdelagrossesse: A proposdecinq observations. Rev Gynec Obstet 11: 567-572.
6. Fozan HA, Tulandi T (2002) Safety and risks of laparoscopy in pregnancy. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 14: 375-379.
7. Gurbuz AT, Peetz ME (1997) The acute abdomen in the pregnant patient. Is there a role for laparoscopy? Surg Endosc 11: 98-102.
8. Shevchuk MG (1992) Appendicitis in women. Health 1992: 144.
9. Buser KB (2002) Laparoscopic surgery in the pregnant patient - One surgeon’s experience in a small rural hospital. JSLS 6: 121-124.
10. Popkin CA, Lopez PP, Cohn SM, Brown M, Lynn M (2002) The incision of choice for pregnant women with appendicitis is through McBumey’s point. Am J Surg 183: 20-22.
11. Curet MJ (2000) Special problems in laparoscopic surgery. Previous abdominal surgery, obesity and pregnancy. Surg Clin North Am 80: 1093-1110.
12. Retzke U, Graf H, Schmidt M (1998) Appendicitis in pregnancy. Zentralbl Chir 123: 61-65.
13. Ueberrueck Т, Koch A, Meyer L, Hinkel M, Gastinger I (2004) Ninety-four appendectomies for suspected acute appendicitis during pregnancy. World J Surg 28: 508-511.
14. Palanivelu C, Rangarajan M, Parthasarathi R (2006) Laparoscopic appendectomy in pregnancy: A case series of seven patients. JSLS 10: 321-325.
15. Strizhakov AN (1999) Pregnancy and acute appendicitis. Association of Obstetricians-Gynecologists 1999: 37-41.
16. Posta CG (1995) Laparoscopic surgery in pregnancy: Report on two cases. J Laparoendosc Surg 5: 203-205.
17. Thomas SJ, Brisson P (1998) Laparoscopic appendectomy and cholecystectomy during pregnancy: Six case reports. JSLS 2: 41-46.
18. Friedman JD, Ramsey PS, Ramin KD, Berry C (2002) Pneumo amnion and pregnancy loss after second-trimester laparoscopic surgery. Obstet Gynecol 199: 512-513.
19. de Perrot M, Jenny A, Morales M, Kohlik M, Morel P (2000) Laparoscopic appendectomy during pregnancy. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Technol 10: 368-371.
20. Kriger AG, Fedorov AV, Voskresensky PK, Dronov AF (2002) Acute appendicitis. M.: Medpraktika-M, p: 244.
21. Adam VN, Mrsic V, Smiljanic А, Cala Z (2004) Laparoscopic surgery during pregnancy. LijecVjesn 126: 201-203.
22. Amos JD, Schorr SJ, Norman PP, Poole GV, Thomae KR, et al. (1996) Laparoscopic surgery during pregnancy. Am J Surg 171: 435-437.
23. Andersen В, Nielsen TF (1999) Appendicitis in pregnancy: Diagnosis, management and complications. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 78: 758-762.
24. Bimbaum BA, Wilson SR (2000) Appendicitis at the millennium. Radiology 215: 337-348.
25. Kuczkowski KM (2007) Laparoscopic procedures during pregnancy and the risks of anesthesia: What does an obstetrician need to know? Arch Gynecol Obstet 276: 201-209.
26. Lachman E, Schienfeld A, Voss E (1999) Pregnancy and laparoscopic surgery. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc 6: 347-351.
27. Lehner R, TringlerВ, Stengg K, Goharkhay N (2002) Premature labor in a women with perforating appendicitis at 36 weeks of gestation. A case report. J Reprod Med 47: 327-328.
28. Lyass S, PikarskyA, Eisenberg VH, Elchalal U, Schenker JG, et al. (2001) Is laparoscopic appendectomy safe in pregnant women? Surg Endosc 15: 377-379.
29. Marcoux S, Maheux R, Berube S (1997) Laparoscopic surgery in infertile women with minimal or mild endometriosis. N Engl J Med 337: 217-222.
30. Moreno-Sanz C, Pascual-Pedreno A, Picazo-Yeste JS, Seoane-Gonzalez JB (2007) Laparoscopic appendectomy during pregnancy: Between personal experiences and scientific evidence. J Am Coll Surg 205: 37-42.
31. Moreno-Sanz C, Pascual-Pedreno A, Picazo-Yeste J, Corral-Sánchez MA, Marcello-Fernández M, et al. (2005) Laparoscopic appendectomy and pregnancy. Personal experience and review of the literature. Cir Esp 78: 371-376.
32. Palanivelu C, Rangarajan M, Senthilkumaran S, Parthasarathi R (2007) Safety and efficacy of laparoscopic surgery in pregnancy: Experience of a single institution. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Technol 17: 186-190.
33. Perrot M, Jenny A, Morales M, Kohlik M, Morel P (2000) Laparoscopic appendectomy during pregnancy. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 10: 368-371.
34. Schmidt SC, Henrich W, Schmidt M, Neumann U, Schumacher G, et al. (2007) Laparoscopic appendectomy in pregnancy. Zentralbl Chir 132: 112-117.
35. Schreiber JH (1990) Laparoscopic appendectomy in pregnancy. Surg Endosc 4: 100-102.
36. Steinbrook RA (2002) Anesthesia, minimally invasive surgery and pregnancy. Best Pract Res Clin Anesthesiol 16: 131-143.
37. Steinbrook RA, Bhavani-Shankar K (2001) Hemodynamics during laparoscopic surgery in pregnancy. Anesth Analg 93: 1570-1571.
38. Wu JM, Chen KH, Lin HF, Tseng LM, Tseng SH, et al. (2005) Laparoscopic appendectomy in pregnancy. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 15: 447-450.
- Journal of Allergy Research(ISSN:2642-326X)
- International Journal of Medical and Clinical Imaging(ISSN:2573-1084)
- Journal of Ageing and Restorative Medicine(ISSN:2637-7403)
- International Journal of Diabetes:Current Research
- BioMed Research Journal(ISSN:2578-8892)
- Journal of Infectious Diseases and Research
- Archive of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine(ISSN:2640-2297)