Research Article
The Importance of Using ZOUSH Ointment in Burn Wound Infection Treatments
Meskini M, Ghorbani M and Esmaeili D*
Corresponding Author: Esmaeili D, Department of Microbiology and Applied Microbiology, Research Center, Systems biology and poisonings institute, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Received: June 27, 2018; Accepted: October 08, 2018; Published: May 26, 2019;
Citation: Meskini M, Ghorbani M & Esmaeili D. (2019) The Importance of Using ZOUSH Ointment in Burn Wound Infection Treatments. Adv Vaccines Vaccin Res, 2(1): 20-22.
Copyrights: ©2019 Meskini M, Ghorbani M & Esmaeili D. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
 

Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic bacterium which is one of the most important bacterial infections. As the incidence of MDR and XDR strains were reported and antibiotic resistant is a global issue we research about the new drug.

Materials and methods: Data about Iranian herbal medicine were obtained by searching databases. In this research, we study about 88 papers from different databases.

Results: The result of our study indicated that ZOUSH ointment which includes herbal medicine such as Satureja khuzestaniea, Zataria multiflora, Mentha mozaffariani Jamzad can use for controlling burn wound infections.

Conclusion: ZOUSH ointment will be used as a common ointment for healing burn wound infections.

 

Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Antibiotic, Carvacrol

INTRODUCTION

For the first time, antibiotic use in the 1940s has created tremendous advances in the pharmaceutical industry. Bacteria are single cell living organisms which exist everywhere [1]. There are three groups of bacteria in the universe, Pathogen, non-pathogen and environmental bacteria. For those bacteria which are pathogens, we need antibiotics lead to inhibits their growth and their infections. Although antibiotic usage is very common nowadays, if antibiotics use more than specific dose, an overdose of them leads to antibiotic resistance step by step [2], so previous antibiotic’s dose couldn’t be effective and more dosage is needed, after that, we confront antibiotic resistance. Recently antibiotic resistance is a global issue [3].

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunist, gram-negative and bacillus bacteria, which is showed widely antibiotic resistance. Recently incidence of MDR and XDR strain were been reported by the researcher [4]. Thus, in this study, we search to find alternative ointment instead of common ointment for healing wound infections. 

MATERIALS AND METHODS
The searching process was conducted to introducing a new drug, ZOUSH ointment, for healing burn wound infections. We were used Google Scholar, Science Direct, Web of Science, MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library and the Scientific Information Database. The original and review articles which are published in English and Persian were included in our research. The keywords such as Satureja khuzestaniea, Zataria multiflora, Mentha mozaffariani Jamzad, ointment, burn infection and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were been used for the searching process. The same searching was done with similar strategies and related Persian keywords among Iranian databases. We searched magiran (http://www.magiran.com) and Irandoc (http://www.irandoc.ac.ir), Scientific Information Database (http://www.sid.ir), Iranmedex (http://www.iranmedex.com).


RESULTS

Plants have always been one of the main sources of drugs that are used traditionally or in the form of pure chemical products. According to the World Health Organization, about 80% of the world's population uses herbal medicines as part of their treatment. Iran with 11 different climates and more than 7500 plant species is a very good base for obtaining valuable medicinal and rare species. Currently, 25% of the existing drugs have herbal sources and 12% of the drugs are made from microbial sources [5]. Studies included in this review were from all over the world. All of 14 selected studies focused on Satureja khuzestanica, Zataria multiflora, Mentha mozaffariani Jamzad [6] (Figure 1).


DISCUSSION

Burn is one of the most serious medical conditions, which affects whole physical and mental aspects and is capable of infecting people of all ages.

Prevention of bacterial infection spread in hospital settings is difficult due to the intrinsic and acquired resistance of this bacterium to many antibiotics. Given the fact that the main way of controlling infection is the use of antibiotics, the emergence of MDR and XDR strains is a current worldwide problem. The prevalence of these strains is on the rise due to the antibiotic selective pressure and elevated dosage.

Despite many scientific advances in the treatment of burns, it remains one of the major public health problems around the world, especially in developing countries.

Achieving an effective and efficient method is needed for the immediate treatment of these bacteria due to therapeutic dilemmas, drug resistance and high mortality due to bacteria. Traditional medicine plays an important role in the treatment and prevention of these bacteria.

Our study showed that the Carvacrol is a major component of the S. khuzestaniea extract, which inhibits the ATPase activity and increases the bacterial cell membrane permeability, and hence enhances the membrane permeability for antibacterial agents [1-6]. As Salarbashi et al. showed in their research that Z. multiflora extracts had significant antibacterial effects on regular and IMP-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains [7].

In the other hand, Carvacrol has an anti-fungal (such as C. albicans) property [8] in addition to its antibacterial (such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa properties) [9]. Also, this component can be antimicrobial effectiveness against gram positive and gram negative bacteria [10]. The results of Arman et al.’s [11] research in 2013 indicated the Mentha mozaffariani oil exhibited high antimicrobial activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria, according to the disk diffusion method and MIC values [11].

Our review study indicate that Satureja khuzistanica can reduce the expression level of various genes such as exoS, lasA, lasB, mexA and mexR genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa [12-14].

CONCLUSION

Our review study indicated that herbal medicine such as Satureja khuzestaniea, Zataria multiflora, Mentha mozaffariani Jamzad can control infection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a different way such as reducing the level of different gene expression. Thus we can use this herbal medicine to produce an ointment which can heal burn wound infection. So we decided to formulation herbal ointment, ZOUSH, to control and healing burn infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

1.       Fleming A (1945) Penicillin. Nobel lecture D. In: Nobel e-museum. Available: (Accessed 2004, July 28).

2.       World Health Organization (2000) Overcoming antimicrobial resistance. Report on infectious diseases. Available: (Accessed 2002, July 28).

3.       Reyes LF, Babu BL, Aliberti S, Sibila O, Anzueto A, et al. (2017) Global burden and risk factors of drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in patients with community-acquired pneumonia: An multinational point prevalence study. Am Thorac Soc, p: A6858-A.

4.       Denyer SP, Hodges NA, Gorman SP (2008) Hugo and Russell's pharmaceutical microbiology. John Wiley & Sons.

5.       Timurkaynak F, Can F, Azap OK, Demirbilek M, Arslan H, et al. (2006) In vitro activities of non-traditional antimicrobials alone or in combination against multidrug-resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from intensive care units. Int J Antimicrob Agents 27: 224-228.

6.       Meskini M, Ghorbanalizadegan M, Esmaeili D (2015) Importance of herbal ointment for Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in burn patients. Int J Med Invest 4: 275-261.

7.       Heidary M, Hashemi A, Goudarzi H, Khoshnood S, Roshani M, et al. (2016) The antibacterial activity of Iranian plants extracts against metallo beta-lactamase producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. J Paramed Sci 7: 13-9.

8.       Mahboubi M, Kazempour N (2016) The anti-candidal activity of Satureja khuzistanica ethanol extract against clinical isolates of C. albicans. J Mycol Med 26: e6-e10.

9.       Dashipour A, Razavilar V, Hosseini H, Shojaee-Aliabadi S, German JB, et al. (2015) Antioxidant and antimicrobial carboxymethyl cellulose films containing Zataria multiflora essential oil. Int J Biol Macromol 72: 606-613.

10.    Salarbashi D, Tajik S, Shojaee-Aliabadi S, Ghasemlou M, Moayyed H, et al. (2014) Development of new active packaging film made from a soluble soybean polysaccharide incorporated Zataria multiflora Boiss and Mentha pulegium essential oils. Food Chem 146: 614-622.

11.    Arman M, Yousefzadi M, Khademi SZ (2011) Antimicrobial activity and composition of the essential oil from Mentha mozaffarianii. J Essential Oil Bearing Plants 14: 131-135.

12.    Bekhechi C, Bekkara FA, Abdelouahid DE, Liu K, Casanova J, et al. (2007) Composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Ziziphora hispanica (L.) from Algeria. J Essential Oil Bearing Plants 10: 318-323.

13.    Jalalvandi N, Bahador A, Zahedi B, Saghi H, Esmaeili D (2015) The study of inhibitory effects of Satureja khuzestanica essence against mexa and mexr efflux genes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by RT-PCR. Int J Biotechnol 4: 1-8.

14.    Meskini M, Esmaeili D (2018) The study of formulated ZOUSH ointment against wound infection and gene expression of virulence factors Pseudomonas aeruginosa. BMC Complement Altern Med 18: 185.