|Akhilesh Kumar* and Vimala Bind|
|Corresponding Author: Dr. Akhilesh Kumar, Consultant (Toxicology), Toxicology Division, CIB & RC, Faridabad, Haryana, India|
|Received: November 26, 2018; Accepted: December 02, 2018; Published: April 08, 2019;|
|Citation: Kumar A & Bind V. (2019) Medicinal Applications of Curcumin Nowadays as Nanoform. J Pharm Drug Res, 2(2): 82-84.|
|Copyrights: ©2019 Kumar A & Bind V. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.|
Curcumin extract from turmeric, a natural polyphenol product from the rhizome. Several studies have revealed that it showed anti-cancerous activity, inhibited cell necrosis, inhibiting cell proliferation, anti-angiogenesis and anti-microbial that makes it more interesting to other one without side effects. It has been nowadays used in clinical trials on varied inflammatory diseases and cancers. So, many incurable diseases like neurodegenerative diseases, vessel diseases and polygenic disease after the clinical application of curcumin confirmed better possibility in the field of drug development in near future. In curcumin have very low bioavailability in nature, so to enhance the bioavailability of it using by numerous strategies, such as add with adjuvant or structural modification in the various form of Nanoparticle, etc. In this article, we summarized the currently using various form of Nanoparticle of curcumin and their efficacy also.
Keywords: Nanoparticle, Curcumin, Anti-teratogen, Bioavailability
PROBLEMS WITH CURCUMIN
The major problems with Curcumin because of it have a poor bioavailability caused by its absorption very low and rapid metabolism. Its clinical application suffers because of this. Bioavailability improvement or enhancement is major challenge for its medicinal use. In many previous preclinical studies revealed that the bioavailability could be enhanced through the mixing with adjuvant or with curcumin formulation and the newly formed compound as drug delivered through as a nanoparticles form or liposomes, micelles or phospholipid complexes. By the simple structural modification of Curcumin its activity also could be enhanced. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNPs) to enhance the oral bioavailability of curcumin .
USE AS NANO-FORM OR OTHERS FORMULATION
THERACURMIN used as the first Nanoparticle formulation of Curcumin which revealed the enhancing bioavailability of Curcumin in human subjects. The experiment however, is a promising tool at the time of testing the potential anticancer effects of curcumin in clinical trials . Curcumin when loaded with ZnO nanoparticles form were successfully synthesized and encapsulated with co-polymer PMMA-AA or Cur/PMMA-AA/ZnO NPs as reported and the result revealed that the formulation PMMA-AA/ZnO nanoparticles with curcumin enhancing the anti-gastric cancer activity of curcumin . Curcumin as in the form of a nano drug delivery agent for doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) (commercially known as Adriamycin®) coated with PEG revealed a more effective therapeutic strategy against MDR cancer cells. In this for the result confirmed improved bioavailability . Triptolide and Curcumin Nanoparticles (NPs) showed synergistic effects on ovarian cancer in both in vitro and in vivo model studied and the toxicity caused by triptolide was reduced by the presence of curcumin in the system through anti-oxidative properties. These experiments could be a promising strategy in future for ovarian cancer patient . The ‘white curcumin’ tetrahydrocurcumin lipid nanoparticles effectively inhibit skin inflammation . Curcumin when loaded into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) to showed much improved therapeutic efficacy for breast cancer in these studies . Curcumin nanoliposomes showed tumor regression in vivo and enhancement of cytotoxic photodynamic activity on HepG2 cancer cells. In this experiment curcumin nanoliposomes and PVP capped gold nanoparticles used but the curcumin nanoliposomes exhibited better performance .
In an in vitro study revealed the retention of anticancer activity of curcumin after conjugation of the curcumin molecules on the surface of gold quantum clusters. However, in vivo study on severe combined immunodeficiency mice showed that conjugates also inhibited the tumor growth efficiently exclusive of any significant adverse effects on the internal organs . In a formulation a novel nano-carrier containing Pluronic-F127 stabilized D-α-Tocopherol polyethene glycol 1000 succinate nanoparticles, applied for the solubilization of curcumin revealed that solubilized a very high concentration (4.3 mg/mL) of curcumin. These Curcumin-loaded nanocarriers showed reduced retinal ganglion cell loss, mark a potential for in future as effective neuroprotective remedy in the patient of glaucoma and such type of other eye diseases . Another studies revealed that curcumin-loaded polyacrylamide-cardiolipin-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles with conjugated 83-14 monoclonal antibody to reduced neuritic degeneration by confirming to protect β-amyloid-insulted neurons 
Another study showed that Nano particulate curcumin (poly d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid entrapped curcumin Nanoparticle) increase bioavailability and stimulated higher early cell-mediated immune response while it significantly stimulated primary humoral immune response and secondary humoral antibody titers also .
Curcumin from ancient to modern used for the cure of various ailments due to its miracle properties. In the future, several clinical studies carried out generally focused on various diseases. Furthermore, by applied it in different structural modifications form its effects enhance several fold as modification with as adjuvant or drug delivery systems. So, finally further more work needs to explore the more properties of curcumin for its use in near future for human welfare.
Mrs. Vimala Bind contributing in the preparation of manuscript.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
The authors confirm that there are no conflicts of Interest.
1. Kiuchi F, Goto Y, Sugimoto N, Akao N, Kondo K, et al. (1993) Nematocidal activity of turmeric: Synergistic action of curcuminoids. Chem Pharm Bull 41: 1640.
2. Moragoda L, Jaszewski R, Majumdar AP (2001) Curcumin induced modulation of cell cycle and apoptosis in gastric and colon cancer cells. Anticancer Res 21: 873-878.
3. Ammon H, Wahl MA. (1991) Pharmacology of Curcuma longa. Planta Med 57: 1-7.
4. Goel A, Kunnumakkara AB, Aggarwal BB (2008) Curcumin as “Curecumin”: From kitchen to clinic. Biochem Pharmacol 75: 787-809.
5. Woo JH, Kim YH, Choi YJ, Kim DG, Lee KS, et al. (2003) Molecular mechanisms of curcumin-induced cytotoxicity: Induction of apoptosis through generation of reactive oxygen species, down-regulation of Bcl-X-L and IAP, the release of cytochrome c and inhibition of Akt. Carcinogenesis 24: 1199-1208.
6. Han SY, Yang Y (2005) Antimicrobial activity of wool fabric treated with curcumin. Dyes and Pigments 64: 157-161.
7. Martins CVB, da Silva DL, Neres ATM, Magalhães TF, Watanabe GA, et al. (2009) Curcumin as a promising antifungal of clinical interest. J Antimicrob Chemother 63: 337-339.
8. Bae MK, Kim SH, Jeong JW, Lee YM, Kim HS, et al. (2006) Curcumin inhibits hypoxia induced angiogenesis via down-regulation of HIF-1. Oncol Rep 15: 1557-1562.
9. Kumar A, Chandasana H, Bhatta RS, Sethi N, Yadav S, et al. (2015) Curcumin affords protection against valproic acid induced teratogenicity by curtailing oxidative stress and inhibiting CYP2C9 activity. RSC Adv 5; 82756-82764.
10. Kakkar V, Singh S, Singla D, Kaur IP (2011) Exploring solid lipid nanoparticles to enhance the oral bioavailability of curcumin. Mol Nutr Food Res 55: 495-503.
11. Kanai M, Imaizumi A, Otsuka Y, Sasaki H, Hashiguchi M, et al. (2012) Dose-escalation and pharmacokinetic study of Nanoparticle curcumin, a potential anticancer agent with improved bioavailability, in healthy human volunteers. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 69: 65-70.
12. Dhivya R, Ranjani J, Rajendhran J, Mayandi J, Annaraj J, et al. (2018) Enhancing the anti-gastric cancer activity of curcumin with biocompatible and pH sensitive PMMA-AA/ZnO nanoparticles. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 82: 182-189.
13. Rejinold NS, Yoo J, Jon S, Kim YC (2018) Curcumin as a novel nanocarrier system for doxorubicin delivery to mdr cancer cells: In vitro and in vivo evaluation. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces.
14. Liu L, Xiong X, Shen M, Ru D, Gao P, et al. (2018) Co-delivery of triptolide and curcumin for ovarian cancer targeting therapy via mPEG-DPPE/CaP nanoparticle. J Biomed Nanotechnol 14: 1761-1772.
15. Kakkar V, Kaur IP, Kaur AP, Saini K, Singh KK (2018) Topical delivery of tetrahydrocurcumin lipid nanoparticles effectively inhibits skin inflammation: In vitro and in vivo study. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 25: 1-12.
16. Wang W, Chen T, Xu H, Ren B, Cheng X, et al. (2018) Curcumin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles enhanced anticancer efficiency in breast cancer. Molecules 23: pii: E1578.
17. Fadel M, Kassab K, Abd El Fadeel DA, Nasr M, El Ghoubary NM, et al. (2018) Comparative enhancement of curcumin cytotoxic photodynamic activity by nanoliposomes and gold nanoparticles with pharmacological appraisal in HepG2 cancer cells and Erlich solid tumor model. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 3: 1-26.
18. Khandelwal P, Alam A, Choksi A, Chattopadhyay S, Poddar P (2018) Retention of anticancer activity of curcumin after conjugation with fluorescent gold quantum clusters: An in vitro and in vivo xenograft study. ACS Omega 3: 4776-4785.
19. Davis BM, Pahlitzsch M, Guo L, Balendra S, Shah P, et al. (2018) Topical curcumin nanocarriers are neuroprotective in eye disease. Sci Rep 8: 11066.
20. Kuo YC, Tsai HC (2018) Rosmarinic acid and curcumin-loaded polyacrylamide-cardiolipin-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles with conjugated 83-14 monoclonal antibody to protect β-amyloid-insulted neurons. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 91: 445-457.
21. Afolayan FID, Erinwusi B, Oyeyemi OT (2018) Immunomodulatory activity of curcumin-entrapped poly d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles in mice. Integr Med Res 7: 168-175.